Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Prevalent hepatitis B surface antigen among first-time blood donors in Gabon

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Despite chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection being the main cause of younger-onset complex liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Africa, very little is known regarding the seroprevalence of HBV in the Gabonese general population. This investigation aimed to provide strong epidemiological data and risk factors associated with HBV infection in first-time blood donors representative of the urban adult population. The screening of HBsAg was carried out using 4th generation ELISA kits. The overall seroprevalence of HBsAg was 7.28%. The frequency of HBsAg was differential and marked by annual variations in blood donors from 2009 to 2016. Seroprevalence was 2-fold higher among males versus females (OR = 1.90 (95% CI: 1.75–2.06), P<0.001). HBsAg seroprevalence was significantly higher in donors of the age group 25–35 years old compared to donors of the age group <18 years (OR = 1.64 (95% CI: 1.03–2.60), P = 0.04). The seroprevalence of HBsAg in family/replacement donors (FRD) was significantly higher than that of voluntary non-remunerated donors (VNRD) (OR = 0.88 (95% CI: 0.83–0.94), P <0.001). The simultaneous comparison of HBsAg seroprevalence with blood donation type, gender and age showed that the higher prevalence in FRD was significant only in males between 18 and 45 years and in females between 25 and 34 years of age. This study confirms the high endemicity of HBV in Gabon while identifying the most infected age groups for both men and women.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 35

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Sero-prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection among health care workers in a tertiary hospital in Uganda

      Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health challenge. Prevalence of current hepatitis B virus infection in the general population in Uganda is about 10%. Health care workers (HCW) have an extra risk of getting infected from their workplace and yet they are not routinely vaccinated against HBV infection. This study aimed at estimating prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection and associated risk factors among health care workers in a tertiary hospital in Uganda. Methods Data were obtained from a cross sectional survey conducted in Mulago, a national referral and teaching hospital in Uganda among health care workers in 2003. A proportionate to size random sample was drawn per health care worker category. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors. ELISA was used to test sera for HBsAg, anti-HBs and total anti-HBc. Descriptive and logistic regression models were used for analysis. Results Among the 370 participants, the sero-prevalence of current hepatitis B virus infection was 8.1%; while prevalence of life time exposure to hepatitis B virus infection was 48.1%. Prevalence of needle stick injuries and exposure to mucous membranes was 67.8% and 41.0% respectively. Cuts were also common with 31.7% of doctors reporting a cut in a period of one year preceding the survey. Consistent use of gloves was reported by 55.4% of respondents. The laboratory technicians (18.0% of respondents) were the least likely to consistently use gloves. Only 6.2% of respondents were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus infection and 48.9% were susceptible and could potentially be protected through vaccination. Longer duration in service was associated with a lower risk of current infection (OR = 0.13; p value = 0.048). Being a nursing assistant (OR = 17.78; p value = 0.007) or a laboratory technician (OR = 12.23; p value = 0.009) were associated with a higher risk of current hepatitis B virus infection. Laboratory technicians (OR = 3.99; p value = 0.023) and individuals with no training in infection prevention in last five years (OR = 1.85; p value = 0.015) were more likely to have been exposed to hepatitis B virus infection before. Conclusions The prevalence of current and life time exposure to hepatitis B virus infection was high. Exposure to potentially infectious body fluids was high and yet only a small percentage of HCW were vaccinated. There is need to vaccinate all health care workers as a matter of policy and ensure a safer work environment.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: found
        Is Open Access

        Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among health care workers in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania

        Background Sub-Saharan Africa has a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk of contracting HBV infection through their occupation. Vaccination of HCWs against HBV is standard practice in many countries, but is often not implemented in resource-poor settings. We aimed with this cross-sectional study to determine HBV prevalence, HCW vaccination status, and the risk factors for HCWs contracting HBV infection in Tanzania. Methods We enrolled 600 HCWs from a tertiary Tanzanian hospital. Their demographics, medical histories, HBV vaccination details and risk factors for contracting blood-borne infections were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers by ELISA techniques, PCR and an anti-HBs rapid test. HCWs were divided in two subgroups: those at risk of contracting HBV (rHCW 79.2 %) via exposure to potentially infectious materials, and those considered not at risk of contracting HBV (nrHCW, 20.8 %). Results The overall prevalence of chronic HBV infection (HBsAg+, anti-HBc+, anti-HBs-) was 7.0 % (42/598). Chronic HBV infection was found in 7.4 % of rHCW versus 5.6 % of nrHCW (p-value = 0.484). HCWs susceptible to HBV (HBsAg-, anti-HBc-, anti-HBs-) comprised 31.3 %. HBV immunity achieved either by healed HBV infection (HBsAg-, anti-HBc+, anti-HBs+) or by vaccination (HBsAg-, anti-HBc-, anti-HBs+) comprised 36.5 % and 20.2 %, respectively. 4.8 % of participants had indeterminate results (HBsAg-, anti-HBc+, anti-HBc-IgM-, anti-HBs-). Only 77.1 % of HCWs who received a full vaccination course had an anti-HBs titer >10 ml/U. An anti-HBs point-of-care test was 80.7 % sensitive and 96.9 % specific. There was a significantly higher risk for contracting HBV (anti-HBc+) among those HCW at occupational risk (rHCW) of older age (odds ratios (OR) in rHCW 3.297, p < 0.0001 vs. nrHCW 1.385, p = 0.606) and among those HCW being employed more than 11 years (OR 2.51, p < 0.0001***). HCV prevalence was low (HCV antibodies 1.2 % and HCV-RNA 0.3 %). Conclusions Chronic HBV infection is common among Tanzanian HCWs. One third of HCWs were susceptible to HBV infection, highlighting the need for vaccination. Due to high prevalence of naturally acquired immunity against HBV pre-testing might be a useful tool to identify susceptible individuals.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Seroprevalence and incidence of transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases among blood donors from regional blood transfusion centres in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

          The high prevalence of numerous transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases such as HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in sub-Saharan Africa affects blood safety for transfusion recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of transfusion-transmissible infectious diseases among blood donors in Burkina Faso. A retrospective study of blood donors' records from January to December 2009 was conducted. Prevalence and incidence of viral infections were calculated among repeat and first-time blood donors. Of the total of 31405 first-time volunteer blood donors in 2009, 24.0% were infected with at least one pathogen and 1.8% had serological evidence of multiple infections. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in first-time volunteer donors was 1.8%, 13.4%, 6.3% and 2.1%, respectively. In 3981 repeat donors, the incidence rate was 3270.2, 5874.1 and 6784.6 per 100000 donations for anti-HIV-1, HBsAg and anti-HCV, respectively. These numbers varied significantly according to populations where blood is collected and blood centres in Burkina Faso. The relatively high prevalence of viral markers in first-time volunteers and remarkably high incidence of infections in repeat donors raise concerns regarding the safety of these donors and suggest that implementation of NAT might significantly improve the situation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Centre National de Transfusion sanguine, Libreville, Gabon
            [2 ] Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (LABMC), Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku, Franceville, Gabon
            [3 ] Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona, United States of America
            [4 ] Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America
            [5 ] Division of Hematology/Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona, United States of America
            FDA, UNITED STATES
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Contributors
            Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Writing – original draft
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6888-6317, Role: Conceptualization, Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Investigation, Role: Methodology, Role: Validation, Role: Writing – original draft, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Conceptualization, Role: Funding acquisition, Role: Supervision, Role: Writing – original draft
            Role: Methodology, Role: Resources, Role: Supervision, Role: Writing – original draft
            Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Investigation, Role: Methodology, Role: Software
            Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Methodology, Role: Software, Role: Supervision
            Role: Validation, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis
            Role: Formal analysis
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7885-8574, Role: Supervision, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Supervision, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Investigation, Role: Project administration, Role: Writing – original draft, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Editor
            Journal
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            plos
            plosone
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
            1932-6203
            13 April 2018
            2018
            : 13
            : 4
            29652917
            5898709
            10.1371/journal.pone.0194285
            PONE-D-17-29277
            (Editor)
            © 2018 Eko Mba et al

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            Counts
            Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Pages: 10
            Product
            Funding
            Funded by: This work was supported by Centre National de Transfusion sanguine through le programme de soutien à la recherche No2 and Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF). The sponsors had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
            Award Recipient : ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6888-6317
            This work was supported by Centre National de Transfusion Sanguine (CNTS) and Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie (Ref.: G950/442/BACGL 2016/AO/PFD) to CB. The sponsors had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
            Categories
            Research Article
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Health Care
            Blood Donors
            People and Places
            Population Groupings
            Age Groups
            Biology and life sciences
            Microbiology
            Medical microbiology
            Microbial pathogens
            Viral pathogens
            Hepatitis viruses
            Hepatitis B virus
            Medicine and health sciences
            Pathology and laboratory medicine
            Pathogens
            Microbial pathogens
            Viral pathogens
            Hepatitis viruses
            Hepatitis B virus
            Biology and life sciences
            Organisms
            Viruses
            Viral pathogens
            Hepatitis viruses
            Hepatitis B virus
            People and Places
            Geographical Locations
            Africa
            Gabon
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Vascular Medicine
            Blood Donation
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Diagnostic Medicine
            Clinical Laboratory Sciences
            Transfusion Medicine
            Blood Transfusion
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Hematology
            Transfusion Medicine
            Blood Transfusion
            Medicine and health sciences
            Infectious diseases
            Viral diseases
            Hepatitis
            Hepatitis B
            Medicine and health sciences
            Gastroenterology and hepatology
            Liver diseases
            Infectious hepatitis
            Hepatitis B
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Anatomy
            Body Fluids
            Blood
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Anatomy
            Body Fluids
            Blood
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Physiology
            Body Fluids
            Blood
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Physiology
            Body Fluids
            Blood
            Custom metadata
            All relevant data are within the paper.

            Uncategorized

            Comments

            Comment on this article