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      Novel natural and synthetic inhibitors of solute carriers SGLT1 and SGLT2

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          Abstract

          Selective analogs of the natural glycoside phloridzin are marketed drugs that reduce hyperglycemia in diabetes by inhibiting the active sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT2 in the kidneys. In addition, intestinal SGLT1 is now recognized as a target for glycemic control. To expand available type 2 diabetes remedies, we aimed to find novel SGLT1 inhibitors beyond the chemical space of glycosides. We screened a bioactive compound library for SGLT1 inhibitors and tested primary hits and additional structurally similar molecules on SGLT1 and SGLT2 (SGLT1/2). Novel SGLT1/2 inhibitors were discovered in separate chemical clusters of natural and synthetic compounds. These have IC 50‐values in the 10‐100 μmol/L range. The most potent identified novel inhibitors from different chemical clusters are (SGLT1‐IC 50 Mean ± SD, SGLT2‐IC 50 Mean ± SD): (+)‐pteryxin (12 ± 2 μmol/L, 9 ± 4 μmol/L), (+)‐ε‐viniferin (58 ± 18 μmol/L, 110 μmol/L), quinidine (62 μmol/L, 56 μmol/L), cloperastine (9 ± 3 μmol/L, 9 ± 7 μmol/L), bepridil (10 ± 5 μmol/L, 14 ± 12 μmol/L), trihexyphenidyl (12 ± 1 μmol/L, 20 ± 13 μmol/L) and bupivacaine (23 ± 14 μmol/L, 43 ± 29 μmol/L). The discovered natural inhibitors may be further investigated as new potential (prophylactic) agents for controlling dietary glucose uptake. The new diverse structure activity data can provide a starting point for the optimization of novel SGLT1/2 inhibitors and support the development of virtual SGLT1/2 inhibitor screening models.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Phlorizin: a review.

          The dihydrochalcone phlorizin is a natural product and dietary constituent found in a number of fruit trees. It has been used as a pharmaceutical and tool for physiology research for over 150 years. Phlorizin's principal pharmacological action is to produce renal glycosuria and block intestinal glucose absorption through inhibition of the sodium-glucose symporters located in the proximal renal tubule and mucosa of the small intestine. This review covers the role phlorizin has played in the history of diabetes mellitus and its use as an agent to understand fundamental concepts in renal physiology as well as summarizes the physiology of cellular glucose transport and the pathophysiology of renal glycosuria. It reviews the biology and pathobiology of glucose transporters and discusses the medical botany of phlorizin and the potential effects of plant flavonoids, such as phlorizin, on human metabolism. Lastly, it describes the clinical pharmacology and toxicology of phlorizin, including investigational uses of phlorizin and phlorizin analogs in the treatment of diabetes, obesity, and stress hyperglycemia. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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            Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in subjects with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease

             J-F Yale,  G Bakris,  B Cariou (2013)
            Aims Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor in development for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in subjects with T2DM and stage 3 chronic kidney disease [CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 and <50 ml/min/1.73 m2]. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, subjects (N = 269) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 26. Prespecified secondary endpoints were change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and proportion of subjects reaching HbA1c <7.0%. Safety was assessed based on adverse event (AE) reports; renal safety parameters (e.g. eGFR, blood urea nitrogen and albumin/creatinine ratio) were also evaluated. Results Both canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg reduced HbA1c from baseline compared with placebo at week 26 (–0.33, –0.44 and –0.03%; p < 0.05). Numerical reductions in FPG and higher proportions of subjects reaching HbA1c < 7.0% were observed with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus placebo (27.3, 32.6 and 17.2%). Overall AE rates were similar for canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg and placebo (78.9, 74.2 and 74.4%). Slightly higher rates of urinary tract infections and AEs related to osmotic diuresis and reduced intravascular volume were observed with canagliflozin 300 mg compared with other groups. Transient changes in renal function parameters that trended towards baseline over 26 weeks were observed with canagliflozin. Conclusion Canagliflozin improved glycaemic control and was generally well tolerated in subjects with T2DM and Stage 3 CKD.
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              Empagliflozin, a novel selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor: characterisation and comparison with other SGLT-2 inhibitors.

              Empagliflozin is a selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study assessed pharmacological properties of empagliflozin in vitro and pharmacokinetic properties in vivo and compared its potency and selectivity with other SGLT-2 inhibitors. [(14)C]-alpha-methyl glucopyranoside (AMG) uptake experiments were performed with stable cell lines over-expressing human (h) SGLT-1, 2 and 4. Two new cell lines over-expressing hSGLT-5 and hSGLT-6 were established and [(14)C]-mannose and [(14)C]-myo-inositol uptake assays developed. Binding kinetics were analysed using a radioligand binding assay with [(3)H]-labelled empagliflozin and HEK293-hSGLT-2 cell membranes. Acute in vivo assessment of pharmacokinetics was performed with normoglycaemic beagle dogs and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Empagliflozin has an IC(50) of 3.1 nM for hSGLT-2. Its binding to SGLT-2 is competitive with glucose (half-life approximately 1 h). Compared with other SGLT-2 inhibitors, empagliflozin has a high degree of selectivity over SGLT-1, 4, 5 and 6. Species differences in SGLT-1 selectivity were identified. Empagliflozin pharmacokinetics in ZDF rats were characterised by moderate total plasma clearance (CL) and bioavailability (BA), while in beagle dogs CL was low and BA was high. Empagliflozin is a potent and competitive SGLT-2 inhibitor with an excellent selectivity profile and the highest selectivity window of the tested SGLT-2 inhibitors over hSGLT-1. Empagliflozin represents an innovative therapeutic approach to treat diabetes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                gerard@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl
                Journal
                Pharmacol Res Perspect
                Pharmacol Res Perspect
                10.1002/(ISSN)2052-1707
                PRP2
                Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2052-1707
                30 July 2019
                August 2019
                : 7
                : 4 ( doiID: 10.1002/prp2.2019.7.issue-4 )
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Unilever Research & Development Vlaardingen The Netherlands
                [ 2 ] Division of Drug Discovery & Safety, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research Leiden University Leiden The Netherlands
                [ 3 ] Drug Delivery and Disposition, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences KU Leuven Leuven Belgium
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Gerard J. P. van Westen, Division of Drug Discovery & Safety, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands.

                Email: gerard@ 123456lacdr.leidenuniv.nl

                Article
                PRP2504
                10.1002/prp2.504
                6664820
                © 2019 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 14, Words: 18974
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Stichting voor de Technische Wetenschappen
                Award ID: VENI #14410
                Categories
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                prp2504
                August 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.6.6.2 mode:remove_FC converted:30.07.2019

                sglt1, diabetes, screening, inhibitors, glucose, sglt2

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