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      Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by reovirus treated melanoma cells is PKR/NF-κB mediated and supports innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune priming

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          Abstract

          Background

          As well as inducing direct oncolysis, reovirus treatment of melanoma is associated with activation of innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses.

          Results

          Here we characterise the effects of conditioned media from reovirus-infected, dying human melanoma cells (reoTCM), in the absence of live virus, to address the immune bystander potential of reovirus therapy. In addition to RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1α and MIP-1β, reovirus-infected melanoma cells secreted eotaxin, IP-10 and the type 1 interferon IFN-β. To address the mechanisms responsible for the inflammatory composition of reoTCM, we show that IL-8 and IFN-β secretion by reovirus-infected melanoma cells was associated with activation of NF-κB and decreased by pre-treatment with small molecule inhibitors of NF-κB and PKR; specific siRNA-mediated knockdown further confirmed a role for PKR. This pro-inflammatory milieu induced a chemotactic response in isolated natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells (DC) and anti-melanoma cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Following culture in reoTCM, NK cells upregulated CD69 expression and acquired greater lytic potential against tumour targets. Furthermore, melanoma cell-loaded DC cultured in reoTCM were more effective at priming adaptive anti-tumour immunity.

          Conclusions

          These data demonstrate that the PKR- and NF-κB-dependent induction of pro-inflammatory molecules that accompanies reovirus-mediated killing can recruit and activate innate and adaptive effector cells, thus potentially altering the tumour microenvironment to support bystander immune-mediated therapy as well as direct viral oncolysis.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Interferons and viruses: an interplay between induction, signalling, antiviral responses and virus countermeasures.

          The interferon (IFN) system is an extremely powerful antiviral response that is capable of controlling most, if not all, virus infections in the absence of adaptive immunity. However, viruses can still replicate and cause disease in vivo, because they have some strategy for at least partially circumventing the IFN response. We reviewed this topic in 2000 [Goodbourn, S., Didcock, L. & Randall, R. E. (2000). J Gen Virol 81, 2341-2364] but, since then, a great deal has been discovered about the molecular mechanisms of the IFN response and how different viruses circumvent it. This information is of fundamental interest, but may also have practical application in the design and manufacture of attenuated virus vaccines and the development of novel antiviral drugs. In the first part of this review, we describe how viruses activate the IFN system, how IFNs induce transcription of their target genes and the mechanism of action of IFN-induced proteins with antiviral action. In the second part, we describe how viruses circumvent the IFN response. Here, we reflect upon possible consequences for both the virus and host of the different strategies that viruses have evolved and discuss whether certain viruses have exploited the IFN response to modulate their life cycle (e.g. to establish and maintain persistent/latent infections), whether perturbation of the IFN response by persistent infections can lead to chronic disease, and the importance of the IFN system as a species barrier to virus infections. Lastly, we briefly describe applied aspects that arise from an increase in our knowledge in this area, including vaccine design and manufacture, the development of novel antiviral drugs and the use of IFN-sensitive oncolytic viruses in the treatment of cancer.
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            Natural killer cells in antiviral defense: function and regulation by innate cytokines.

            Natural killer (NK) cells are populations of lymphocytes that can be activated to mediate significant levels of cytotoxic activity and produce high levels of certain cytokines and chemokines. NK cells respond to and are important in defense against a number of different infectious agents. The first indications for this function came from the observations that virus-induced interferons alpha/beta (IFN-alpha and -beta) are potent inducers of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and that NK cells are important contributors to innate defense against viral infections. In addition to IFN-alpha/beta, a wide range of other innate cytokines can mediate biological functions regulating the NK cell responses of cytotoxicity, proliferation, and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production. Certain, but not all, viral infections induce interleukin 12 (IL-12) to elicit NK cell IFN-gamma production and antiviral mechanisms. However, high levels of IFN-alpha/beta appear to be unique and/or uniquely dominant in the context of viral infections and act to regulate other innate responses, including induction of NK cell proliferation in vivo and overall negative regulation of IL-12 production. A detailed picture is developing of particular innate cytokines activating NK cell responses and their consorted effects in providing unique endogenous milieus promoting downstream adaptive responses, most beneficial in defense against viral infections.
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              The biology of chemokines and their receptors.

              During the last five years, the development of bioinformatics and EST databases has been primarily responsible for the identification of many new chemokines and chemokine receptors. The chemokine field has also received considerable attention since chemokine receptors were found to act as co-receptors for HIV infection (1). In addition, chemokines, along with adhesion molecules, are crucial during inflammatory responses for a timely recruitment of specific leukocyte subpopulations to sites of tissue damage. However, chemokines and their receptors are also important in dendritic cell maturation (2), B (3), and T (4) cell development, Th1 and Th2 responses, infections, angiogenesis, and tumor growth as well as metastasis (5). Furthermore, an increase in the number of chemokine/receptor transgenic and knock-out mice has helped to define the functions of chemokines in vivo. In this review we discuss some of the chemokines' biological effects in vivo and in vitro, described in the last few years, and the implications of these findings when considering chemokine receptors as therapeutic targets.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mol Cancer
                Molecular Cancer
                BioMed Central
                1476-4598
                2011
                21 February 2011
                : 10
                : 20
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
                [2 ]Institute of Cancer Research, Centre for Cell and Molecular Biology, Chester Beatty Laboratories, London, UK
                [3 ]Postgraduate Medical School, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
                [4 ]Oncolytics Biotech Inc, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
                [5 ]Molecular Medicine Program and Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
                Article
                1476-4598-10-20
                10.1186/1476-4598-10-20
                3052210
                21338484
                Copyright ©2011 Steele et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

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