This study was to determine the dental caries prevalence among the Myanmar population, and to investigate the correlations between oral clinical indices and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on oral health. Subjects were randomly selected from 140,000 people residing in the Kyauktan township in a cross-sectional community-based study. The present analysis was confined to 739 subjects (353 males and 386 females) aged 12, 35-44 and 65-74 years, who were divided into two specified groups based on urban or rural location. KAP on oral health data and social demographic information were collected, while dental caries status was assessed by DMFT. The mean number of decayed teeth (DT) in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas, while the mean number of filled teeth (FT) in rural areas was lower than that in urban areas. Mean knowledge and attitude scores for correct answers were also significantly higher for the urban than the rural subjects. There were statistically significant correlations between the correct/incorrect responses to knowledge and attitude questionnaires on oral health and the mean number of DMFT. KAP pertaining to oral health of Myanmar population, especially those of rural subjects, might not be satisfactory and related to threaten their dental caries status.