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      Could Neutrophil-Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Cystatin C Predict the Development of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy after Percutaneous Coronary Interventions in Patients with Stable Angina and Normal Serum Creatinine Values?

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          Abstract

          The value of neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) was highlighted as a novel biomarker for the detection of acute renal failure. We tested the hypothesis whether NGAL could represent an early biomarker of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in 100 patients with normal serum creatinine values undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). In addition, we assessed serum and urinary NGAL in relation to cystatin C, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and serum and urinary creatinine in these patients. We measured urinary and serum NGAL values before and 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 h after the PCI. We found a significant rise in serum NGAL levels 2, 4, and 8 h after the PCI and in urinary NGAL values 4, 8, and 24 h after a PCI procedure. Cystatin C rose significantly 24 h after the procedure. The prevalence of CIN was 11%. The NGAL levels were significantly higher 2 h after the PCI (serum NGAL) or 4 h after the PCI (urinary NGAL), whereas the cystatin C values were higher only 8 and 24 h after a PCI procedure in patients with CIN. In multivariate analysis, only serum creatinine was a predictor of serum NGAL before a PCI. NGAL may represent a sensitive early biomarker of renal impairment after PCI. Serum creatinine level, the presence of diabetes, and the duration of the PCI may affect serum NGAL values and kidney function following a PCI procedure.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients.

          The marginal effects of acute kidney injury on in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs have not been well described. A consecutive sample of 19,982 adults who were admitted to an urban academic medical center, including 9210 who had two or more serum creatinine (SCr) determinations, was evaluated. The presence and degree of acute kidney injury were assessed using absolute and relative increases from baseline to peak SCr concentration during hospitalization. Large increases in SCr concentration were relatively rare (e.g., >or=2.0 mg/dl in 105 [1%] patients), whereas more modest increases in SCr were common (e.g., >or=0.5 mg/dl in 1237 [13%] patients). Modest changes in SCr were significantly associated with mortality, LOS, and costs, even after adjustment for age, gender, admission International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis, severity of illness (diagnosis-related group weight), and chronic kidney disease. For example, an increase in SCr >or=0.5 mg/dl was associated with a 6.5-fold (95% confidence interval 5.0 to 8.5) increase in the odds of death, a 3.5-d increase in LOS, and nearly 7500 dollars in excess hospital costs. Acute kidney injury is associated with significantly increased mortality, LOS, and costs across a broad spectrum of conditions. Moreover, outcomes are related directly to the severity of acute kidney injury, whether characterized by nominal or percentage changes in serum creatinine.
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            Early detection of acute renal failure by serum cystatin C.

            Acute renal failure (ARF) is associated with high mortality. Presently, no specific therapy for ARF exists. Therefore, early detection of ARF is critical to prevent its progression. However, serum creatinine, the standard marker to detect ARF, demonstrates major limitations. We prospectively evaluated whether serum cystatin C detected ARF earlier than serum creatinine. In 85 patients at high risk to develop ARF, serum creatinine and cystatin C were determined daily. ARF was defined according to the Risk of renal dysfunction, Injury to the kidney, Failure of kidney function, Loss of kidney function, and ESRD (RIFLE) classification when creatinine increased by >/=50% (R-criteria), by >/=100% (I-criteria), or by >/=200% (F-criteria). In analogy, ARF was detected when cystatin C increased by >/=50%, by >/=100%, or by >/=200%. Forty-four patients developed ARF and 41 served as controls. In ARF by R-, I-, and F-criteria, the increase of cystatin C significantly preceded that of creatinine. Specifically, serum cystatin C increased already by >/=50% 1.5 +/- 0.6 days earlier compared to creatinine. Serum cystatin C demonstrated a high diagnostic value to detect ARF as indicated by area under the curve of the ROC analysis of 0.82 and 0.97 on the two days before the R-criteria was fulfilled by creatinine. Cystatin C detected ARF according to the R-criteria with a sensitivity of 55% and 82% on these days, respectively. Cystatin C also performed excellently, detecting ARF defined by the I- and F-criteria two days prior to creatinine, and moderately well predicting renal replacement therapy in the further course of ARF. Additionally, low T(3)- or T(3)/T(4) syndrome, glucocorticoid deficiency and excess did not affect cystatin C levels, adding to its usefulness in critically ill patients with ARF. Serum cystatin C is a useful detection marker of ARF, and may detect ARF one to two days earlier than creatinine.
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              Molecular characterization and pattern of tissue expression of the gene for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin from humans.

              Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a 25-kDa lipocalin first identified as a protein stored in specific granules of the human neutrophil. The protein is believed to bind small lipophilic substances such as bacterial derived formylpeptides and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and might function as a modulator of inflammation. To characterize the regulation of NGAL further, we have cloned and sequenced a 5869-bp region of the NGAL gene including 1695 bp of the 5' nontranscribed region and a 3696-bp coding region encompassing seven exons and six introns. The transcriptional start sites were identified by an RNase protection assay. The NGAL gene is highly homologous to the mouse gene 24p3. NGAL was expressed in bone marrow and in tissues that are prone to exposure to microorganisms. Potential cis-acting elements were identified in the promoter region of the NGAL gene by computer analysis and include binding sites for CTF/CBP, the hematopoietic transcription factors GATA-1 and PU.1, and the LPS-inducible factor NF-kappa B.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2007
                November 2007
                27 September 2007
                : 30
                : 6
                : 408-415
                Affiliations
                Departments of aInvasive Cardiology, bNephrology and Transplantology, and cLaboratory Analytics, Medical University, Białystok, Poland
                Article
                109102 Kidney Blood Press Res 2007;30:408–415
                10.1159/000109102
                17901710
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 25, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

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