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      A New Species of Andesipolis Whitfield & Choi from the Eastern Andes of Ecuador with Notes on Biology and Classification (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rhysipolinae)

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          Abstract

          A new species of braconid wasp, Andesipolis yanayacu, is described from the eastern Andes of Ecuador. Andesipolis yanayacu was reared as a gregarious koinobiont parasitoid of shelter building Pyralidae (Lepidoptera) larvae feeding on Urticaceae ( Phenax rugosus and Boehmeria bullata). These are the first biological observations for the genus Andesipolis and the first species recorded from Ecuador. This is also the northern-most record for the genus as previously described species are from Chile. Based on morphological attributes and the newly discovered biology, Andesipolis is re-classified from the subfamily Mesostoinae into the subfamily Rhysipolinae.

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          Most cited references18

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          Systematics of the cyclostome subfamilies of braconid parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea): a simultaneous molecular and morphological Bayesian approach.

          Phylogenetic relationships among 95 genera collectively representing 17 of the 18 currently recognized cyclostome braconid wasp subfamilies were investigated based on DNA sequence fragments of the mitochondrial COI and the nuclear 28S rDNA genes, in addition to morphological data. The treatment of sequence length variation of the 28S partition was explored by either excluding ambiguously aligned regions and indel information (28SN) or recoding them (28SA) using the 'fragment-level' alignment method with a modified coding approach. Bayesian MCMC analyses were performed for the separate and combined data sets and a maximum parsimony analysis was also carried out for the simultaneous molecular and morphological data sets. There was a significant incongruence between the two genes and between 28S and morphology, but not for morphology and COI. Different analyses with the 28SA data matrix resulted in topologies that were generally similar to the ones from the 28SN matrix; however, the former topologies recovered a higher number of significantly supported clades and had a higher mean Bayesian posterior probability, thus supporting the inclusion of information from ambiguously aligned regions and indel events in phylogenetic analyses where possible. Based on the significantly supported clades obtained from the simultaneous molecular and morphological analyses, we propose that a total of 17 subfamilies should be recognized within the cyclostome group. The subfamilial placements of several problematic cyclostome genera were also established.
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            Review of the Hormiini (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with a description of new taxa

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              Phylogenetic relationships among the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) inferred from partial 16S rDNA, 28S rDNA D2, 18S rDNA gene sequences and morphological characters.

              Phylogenetic relationships among the Braconidae were examined using homologous 16S rDNA, 28S rDNA D2 region, and 18S rDNA gene sequences and morphological data using both PAUP* 4.0 and MRBAYES 3.0B4 from 88 in-group taxa representing 35 subfamilies. The monophyletic nature of almost all subfamilies, of which multiple representatives are present in this study, is well-supported except for two subfamilies, Cenocoelinae and Neoneurinae that should probably be treated as tribal rank taxa in the subfamily Euphorinae. The topology of the trees generated in the present study supported the existence of three large generally accepted lineage or groupings of subfamilies: two main entirely endoparasitic lineages of this family, referred to as the "helconoid complex" and the "microgastroid complex," and the third "the cyclostome." The Aphidiinae was recovered as a member of the non-cyclostomes, probably a sister group of Euphorinae or Euphorinae-complex. The basal position of the microgastroid complex among the non-cyclostomes has been found in all our analyses. The cyclostomes were resolved as a monophyletic group in all analyses if two putatively misplaced groups (Mesostoa and Aspilodemon) were excluded from them. Certain well-supported relationships evident in this family from the previous analyses were recovered, such as a sister-group relationships of Alysiinae+Opiinae, of Braconinae+Doryctinae, and a close relationship between Macrocentrinae, Xiphozelinae, Homolobinae, and Charmontinae. The relationships of "Ichneutinae + ((Adeliinae + Cheloninae) + (Miracinae + (Cardiochilinae + Microgastrinae)))" was confirmed within the microgastroid complex. The position of Acampsohelconinae, Blacinae, and Trachypetinae is problematic.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Insect Sci
                J. Insect Sci
                insc
                Journal of Insect Science
                University of Wisconsin Library
                1536-2442
                2009
                2 June 2009
                : 9
                : 36
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo prov., Cosanga, Ecuador
                [ 2 ]Department of Renewable Resources, University of Wyoming
                Author notes

                Jim Miller was editor of this paper

                Article
                10.1673/031.009.3601
                3011899
                19619028
                a9923d4f-90e2-40be-b9f0-f52670efb7bd
                © 2009

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 18 April 2008
                : 25 June 2008
                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Categories
                Article

                Entomology
                mesostoinae,phenax rugosus,pyralidae,boehmeria bullata
                Entomology
                mesostoinae, phenax rugosus, pyralidae, boehmeria bullata

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