Phyllanthus Urinaria L. (PUL) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat hepatic and renal disorders. However, the mechanism of its hepatoprotective action is not fully understood. In the present study, blood biochemical indexes and liver histopathological changes were used to estimate the extent of hepatic injury. GC/MS and LC/MS-based untargeted metabolomics were used in combination to characterize the potential biomarkers associated with the protective activity of PUL against CCl 4-induced liver injury in rats. PUL treatment could reverse the increase in ALT, AST and ALP induced by CCl 4 and attenuate the pathological changes in rat liver. Significant changes in liver metabolic profiling were observed in PUL-treated group compared with liver injury model group. Seventeen biomarkers related to the hepatoprotective effects of PUL against CCl 4-induced liver injury were screened out using nonparametric test and Pearson’s correlation analysis (OPLS-DA). The results suggested that the potential hepatoprotective effects of PUL in attenuating CCl 4-induced hepatotoxicity could be partially attributed to regulating L-carnitine, taurocholic acid, and amino acids metabolism, which may become promising targets for treatment of liver toxicity. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mechanism of the hepatoprotection of Phyllanthus Urinaria.