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      A dysbiotic microbiome triggers TH17 cells to mediate oral mucosal immunopathology in mice and humans

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          Abstract

          Periodontitis is one of the most common human inflammatory diseases, yet the mechanisms that drive immunopathology and could be therapeutically targeted are not well defined. Here, we demonstrate an expansion of resident memory T helper 17 (TH17) cells in human periodontitis. Phenocopying humans, TH17 cells expanded in murine experimental periodontitis through local proliferation. Unlike homeostatic oral TH17 cells, which accumulate in a commensal-independent and interleukin-6 (IL-6)–dependent manner, periodontitis-associated expansion of TH17 cells was dependent on the local dysbiotic microbiome and required both IL-6 and IL-23. TH17 cells and associated neutrophil accumulation were necessary for inflammatory tissue destruction in experimental periodontitis. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TH17 cell differentiation conferred protection from immunopathology. Studies in a unique patient population with a genetic defect in TH17 cell differentiation established human relevance for our murine experimental studies. In the oral cavity, human TH17 cell defects were associated with diminished periodontal inflammation and bone loss, despite increased prevalence of recurrent oral fungal infections. Our study highlights distinct functions of TH17 cells in oral immunity and inflammation and paves the way to a new targeted therapeutic approach for the treatment of periodontitis.

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          Most cited references36

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          Periodontitis: a polymicrobial disruption of host homeostasis.

          Periodontitis, or gum disease, affects millions of people each year. Although it is associated with a defined microbial composition found on the surface of the tooth and tooth root, the contribution of bacteria to disease progression is poorly understood. Commensal bacteria probably induce a protective response that prevents the host from developing disease. However, several bacterial species found in plaque (the 'red-complex' bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola) use various mechanisms to interfere with host defence mechanisms. Furthermore, disease may result from 'community-based' attack on the host. Here, I describe the interaction of the host immune system with the oral bacteria in healthy states and in diseased states.
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            The subgingival microbiome in health and periodontitis and its relationship with community biomass and inflammation.

            The goals of this study were to better understand the ecology of oral subgingival communities in health and periodontitis and elucidate the relationship between inflammation and the subgingival microbiome. Accordingly, we used 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries and quantitative PCR to characterize the subgingival microbiome of 22 subjects with chronic periodontitis. Each subject was sampled at two sites with similar periodontal destruction but differing in the presence of bleeding, a clinical indicator of increased inflammation. Communities in periodontitis were also compared with those from 10 healthy individuals. In periodontitis, presence of bleeding was not associated with different α-diversity or with a distinct microbiome, however, bleeding sites showed higher total bacterial load. In contrast, communities in health and periodontitis largely differed, with higher diversity and biomass in periodontitis. Shifts in community structure from health to periodontitis resembled ecological succession, with emergence of newly dominant taxa in periodontitis without replacement of primary health-associated species. That is, periodontitis communities had higher proportions of Spirochetes, Synergistetes, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi, among other taxa, while the proportions of Actinobacteria, particularly Actinomyces, were higher in health. Total Actinomyces load, however, remained constant from health to periodontitis. Moreover, an association existed between biomass and community structure in periodontitis, with the proportion of specific taxa correlating with bacterial load. Our study provides a global-scale framework for the ecological events in subgingival communities that underline the development of periodontitis. The association, in periodontitis, between inflammation, community biomass and community structure and their role in disease progression warrant further investigation.
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              Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in humans with inborn errors of interleukin-17 immunity.

              Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease (CMCD) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nails, and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida albicans and, to a lesser extent, Staphylococcus aureus, in patients with no other infectious or autoimmune manifestations. We report two genetic etiologies of CMCD: autosomal recessive deficiency in the cytokine receptor, interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA), and autosomal dominant deficiency of the cytokine interleukin-17F (IL-17F). IL-17RA deficiency is complete, abolishing cellular responses to IL-17A and IL-17F homo- and heterodimers. By contrast, IL-17F deficiency is partial, with mutant IL-17F-containing homo- and heterodimers displaying impaired, but not abolished, activity. These experiments of nature indicate that human IL-17A and IL-17F are essential for mucocutaneous immunity against C. albicans, but otherwise largely redundant.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science Translational Medicine
                Sci. Transl. Med.
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                1946-6234
                1946-6242
                October 17 2018
                October 17 2018
                October 17 2018
                October 17 2018
                : 10
                : 463
                : eaat0797
                Article
                10.1126/scitranslmed.aat0797
                6330016
                30333238
                a9a1f631-4e9d-4942-a347-667f0dec5bde
                © 2018

                http://www.sciencemag.org/about/science-licenses-journal-article-reuse

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