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      Evaluating the Effect of Active Charcoal-Containing Toothpaste on Color Change, Microhardness, and Surface Roughness of Tooth Enamel and Resin Composite Restorative Materials


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          Thirty-six bovine incisors and resin composite samples were prepared, stained with black tea, and then randomly divided into two groups. The samples were brushed with a charcoal-containing toothpaste (Colgate® MAX WHITE) and daily toothpaste (Colgate® Max Fresh) for 10,000 cycles. Before and after brushing cycles, color variables ( ΔL, Δa, Δb), total color change ( ΔE), plus Vickers microhardness were evaluated. Two samples of each group were prepared for surface roughness assessment via atomic force microscope. Data were analyzed by Shapiro–Wilk, Independent sample t-test and Mann–Whitney U tests.


          According to the obtained results, ΔE and ΔL were significantly higher whereas Δa and Δb were noticeably lower in charcoal-containing toothpaste group in comparison with daily toothpaste in both composite and enamel samples. The microhardness of samples brushed with Colgate® MAX WHITE was significantly higher than that of Colgate® Max Fresh in enamel ( P = 0.04), whereas no significant difference was found in composite resin samples ( P = 0.23). Colgate® MAX WHITE enhanced the roughness of both enamel and composite surfaces.


          The charcoal-containing toothpaste could improve the color of both enamel and resin composite with no negative effect on microhardness. Nevertheless, its adverse roughening effect should be considered occasionally on composite restorations.

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          Most cited references39

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          Review of the Mechanism of Tooth Whitening.

          This review integrated the current literature on diffusion of whitening agents, their interactions with stain molecules, and changes to the surface, with the aim of establishing a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tooth whitening.
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            Whitening toothpastes: a review of the literature.

            To review and summarise the whitening agents contained within tooth whitening toothpaste formulations, their mode of action in tooth whitening, and the in vitro and clinical methods used to evaluate and demonstrate their efficacy. Original scientific full papers or reviews listed in ISI Web of Science and Medline were included in this review using the search terms white*, toothpaste and dentifrice. Due to the reported consumer and patient dissatisfaction with their perceived tooth color, toothpaste manufacturers have responded by developing a vast array of contemporary whitening toothpastes. One of the key functional ingredients in whitening toothpastes is the abrasive system. In general, these have been designed to give effective removal of extrinsic stains and help prevent tooth stains from reforming without undue abrasivity towards the dental hard tissues. Whitening toothpastes may contain additional agents that augment the abrasive cleaning by aiding the removal and/or prevention of extrinsic stains, for examples, peroxide, enzymes, citrate, pyrophosphate and hexametaphosphate, or optical agents such as blue covarine which can improve tooth whiteness following tooth brushing. In vitro methods used to evaluate tooth whitening efficacy typically determine the ability of a toothpaste formulation to remove/prevent model extrinsic stains on substrates such as enamel or hydroxyapatite or changes in the intrinsic color of tooth specimens. Clinical protocols for evaluating the efficacy of whitening toothpastes typically determine either stain removal or prevention, where changes in natural stain or chlorhexidine/tea induced stain are measured typically over 2-6 weeks. In some clinical studies the overall tooth color change was measured using techniques such as Vita shade guides, colorimeters and image analysis of digital photographs of teeth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Tooth colour and whiteness: A review


                Author and article information

                Int J Dent
                Int J Dent
                International Journal of Dentistry
                9 May 2023
                : 2023
                : 6736623
                1Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                2School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                3Dental Materials Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                4Department of Restorative and Cosmetic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Stefano Pagano

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Ali Forouzanfar et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 9 December 2022
                : 22 February 2023
                : 27 February 2023
                Funded by: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
                Award ID: 980813
                Research Article



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