Background: Various immunological abnormalities leading to impaired immune status have been described in uraemic adults; however, few data are available for uraemic children. Methods: In this study, peripheral blood total lymphocyte count and lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD20+) were evaluated, skin tests with PPD and Candida antigens were performed, and serum immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement (C3, C4) levels were measured in 30 children with end-stage renal failure (10 before dialysis, 10 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, and 10 on haemodialysis) and the results compared with those of 15 healthy controls. Results: The data showed significant lymphopenia in predialysis and haemodialysis groups. No significant change was observed in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio or in the percentages of lymphocyte subsets in either group studied, while the absolute values of some lymphocyte subsets were significantly lower in all groups as compared with controls. In skin test evaluation, only the patients in the predialysis group showed a significantly decreased response to Candida antigen. The serum immunoglobulin levels were significantly decreased in the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis group as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Our results, together with those of other paediatric studies, reported in the literature, suggest that uraemic children are not immunocompromised, though the effects of uraemia may cause some variation in their immune status.