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      Liriodenine, an aporphine alkaloid from Enicosanthellum pulchrum, inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial signaling pathway and blocking cell cycle progression

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          Abstract

          Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant from Malaysia and belongs to the Annonaceae family. This plant is rich in isoquinoline alkaloids. In the present study, liriodenine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, was examined as a potential anticancer agent, particularly in ovarian cancer. Liriodenine was isolated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability was performed to determine the cytotoxicity, whilst the detection of morphological changes was carried out by acridine orange/propidium iodide assay. Initial and late apoptosis was examined by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and DNA laddering assays, respectively. The involvement of pathways was detected via caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 analyses. Confirmation of pathways was further performed in mitochondria using a cytotoxicity 3 assay. Apoptosis was confirmed at the protein level, including Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin, while interruption of the cell cycle was used for final validation of apoptosis. The result showed that liriodenine inhibits proliferation of CAOV-3 cells at 37.3 μM after 24 hours of exposure. Changes in cell morphology were detected by the presence of cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Early apoptosis was observed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate bound to the cell membrane as early as 24 hours. Liriodenine activated the intrinsic pathway by induction of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Involvement of the intrinsic pathway in the mitochondria could be seen, with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability and cytochrome c release, whereas the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. DNA fragmentation occurred at 72 hours upon exposure to liriodenine. The presence of DNA fragmentation indicates the CAOV-3 cells undergo late apoptosis or final stage of apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis at the protein level showed overexpression of Bax and suppression of Bcl-2 and survivin. Liriodenine inhibits progression of the CAOV-3 cell cycle in S phase. These findings indicate that liriodenine could be considered as a promising anticancer agent.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic lymphocytes triggers specific recognition and removal by macrophages.

          During normal tissue remodeling, macrophages remove unwanted cells, including those that have undergone programmed cell death, or apoptosis. This widespread process extends to the deletion of thymocytes (negative selection), in which cells expressing inappropriate Ag receptors undergo apoptosis, and are phagocytosed by thymic macrophages. Although phagocytosis of effete leukocytes by macrophages has been known since the time of Metchnikoff, only recently has it been recognized that apoptosis leads to surface changes that allow recognition and removal of these cells before they are lysed. Our data suggest that macrophages specifically recognize phosphatidylserine that is exposed on the surface of lymphocytes during the development of apoptosis. Macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic lymphocytes was inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, by liposomes containing phosphatidyl-L-serine, but not by liposomes containing other anionic phospholipids, including phosphatidyl-D-serine. Phagocytosis of apoptotic lymphocytes was also inhibited by the L isoforms of compounds structurally related to phosphatidylserine, including glycerophosphorylserine and phosphoserine. The membranes of apoptotic lymphocytes bound increased amounts of merocyanine 540 dye relative to those of normal cells, indicating that their membrane lipids were more loosely packed, consistent with a loss of membrane phospholipid asymmetry. Apoptotic lymphocytes were shown to express phosphatidylserine (PS) externally, because PS on their surfaces was accessible to derivatization by fluorescamine, and because apoptotic cells expressed procoagulant activity. These observations suggest that apoptotic lymphocytes lose membrane phospholipid asymmetry and expose phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Macrophages then phagocytose apoptotic lymphocytes after specific recognition of the exposed PS.
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            Annexin V-affinity assay: a review on an apoptosis detection system based on phosphatidylserine exposure.

            Apoptosis is a programmed, physiological mode of cell death that plays an important role in tissue homeostasis. Understanding of the basic mechanisms that underlie apoptosis will point to potentially new targets of therapeutic treatment of diseases that show an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell loss. In order to conduct such research, techniques and tools to reliably identify and enumerate death by apoptosis are essential. This review focuses on a novel technique to detect apoptosis by targeting for the loss of phospholipid asymmetry of the plasma membrane. It was recently shown that loss of plasma membrane asymmetry is an early event in apoptosis, independent of the cell type, resulting in the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) residues at the outer plasma membrane leaflet. Annexin V was shown to interact strongly and specifically with PS and can be used to detect apoptosis by targeting for the loss of plasma membrane asymmetry. Labeled annexin V can be applied both in flow cytometry and in light microscopy in both vital and fixed material by using appropriate protocols. The annexin V method is an extension to the current available methods. This review describes the basic mechanisms underlying the loss of membrane asymmetry during apoptosis and discusses the novel annexin V-binding assay.
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              Corpse clearance defines the meaning of cell death.

               Jane Savill,  V Fadok (2000)
              While philosophers seek the meaning of life, cell biologists are becoming ever more interested in the meaning of death. Apoptosis marks unwanted cells with 'eat me' signals that direct recognition, engulfment and degradation by phagocytes. Far from being the end of the story, these clearance events allow scavenger cells to confer meaning upon cell death. But if the phagocytic 'spin doctors' receive or transmit the wrong messages, trouble ensues.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                10 March 2015
                : 9
                : 1437-1448
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [2 ]Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [3 ]Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Nazia Abdul Majid, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Tel +60 3 7967 5833, Fax +60 3 7967 5833, Email nazia@ 123456um.edu.my
                Article
                dddt-9-1437
                10.2147/DDDT.S77727
                4362660
                © 2015 Nordin et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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