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      Population Properties of Brown Dwarf Analogs to Exoplanets

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          Abstract

          We present a kinematic analysis of 152 low surface gravity M7-L8 dwarfs by adding 8 parallaxes, 38 radial velocities, and 19 proper motions. We find 39 objects to be high-likelihood or bona fide members of nearby moving groups, 92 objects to be ambiguous members and 21 objects that are non-members. We find that gravity classification and photometric color separate 5-150 Myr sources from > 3 Gyr field objects, but they do not correlate one-to-one with the narrower 5 -150 Myr age range. The absolute magnitudes of low-gravity sources from J band through W3 show a flux redistribution when compared to equivalent field sources that is correlated with spectral subtype. Clouds, which are a far more dominant opacity source for L dwarfs, are the likely cause. On CMDs, the latest-type low-gravity L dwarfs drive the elbow of the L/T transition up to 1 mag redder and 1 mag fainter than field dwarfs at M_J but are consistent with or brighter than the elbow at M_W1 and M_W2. Furthermore, there is an indication on CMD's (such as M_J versus (J-W2) of increasingly redder sequences separated by gravity classification. Examining bolometric luminosities for planets and low-gravity objects, we confirm that young M dwarfs are overluminous while young L dwarfs are normal compared to the field. This translates into warmer M dwarf temperatures compared to the field sequence while lower temperatures for L dwarfs.

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          Most cited references 168

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          Young Stars Near the Sun

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            Alkali Element Chemistry in Cool Dwarf Atmospheres

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              Direct Imaging of Multiple Planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799

               I. Song,  T. Barman,  R. Doyon (2008)
              Direct imaging of exoplanetary systems is a powerful technique that can reveal Jupiter-like planets in wide orbits, can enable detailed characterization of planetary atmospheres, and is a key step towards imaging Earth-like planets. Imaging detections are challenging due to the combined effect of small angular separation and large luminosity contrast between a planet and its host star. High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799, with projected separations of 24, 38, and 68 astronomical units. Multi-epoch data show counter-clockwise orbital motion for all three imaged planets. The low luminosity of the companions and the estimated age of the system imply planetary masses between 5 and 13 times that of Jupiter. This system resembles a scaled-up version of the outer portion of our Solar System.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2016-05-25
                Article
                10.3847/0067-0049/225/1/10
                1605.07927
                a9be2636-f85e-43ba-8fc4-131614e6eb8e

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                Accepted for Publication in ApJs. 84 pages, 43 Figures, 19 Tables
                astro-ph.SR astro-ph.EP astro-ph.GA

                Planetary astrophysics, Galaxy astrophysics, Solar & Stellar astrophysics

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