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      Inactivation of SARS Coronavirus by Means of Povidone-Iodine, Physical Conditions and Chemical Reagents

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          The efficacy of several povidone-iodine (PVP-I) products, a number of other chemical agents and various physical conditions were evaluated for their ability to inactivate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Treatment of SARS-CoV with PVP-I products for 2 min reduced the virus infectivity from 1.17 × 10 6 TCID 50/ml to below the detectable level. The efficacy of 70% ethanol was equivalent to that of PVP-I products. Fixation of SARS-CoV-infected Vero E6 cells with a fixative including formalin, glutaraldehyde, methanol and acetone for 5 min or longer eliminated all infectivity. Heating the virus at 56°C for 60 min or longer reduced the infectivity of the virus from 2.6 × 10 7 to undetectable levels. Irradiation with ultraviolet light at 134 μW/cm 2 for 15 min reduced the infectivity from 3.8 × 10 7 to 180 TCID 50/ml; however, prolonged irradiation (60 min) failed to eliminate the remaining virus, leaving 18.8 TCID 50/ml.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Canada.

          Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a condition of unknown cause that has recently been recognized in patients in Asia, North America, and Europe. This report summarizes the initial epidemiologic findings, clinical description, and diagnostic findings that followed the identification of SARS in Canada. SARS was first identified in Canada in early March 2003. We collected epidemiologic, clinical, and diagnostic data from each of the first 10 cases prospectively as they were identified. Specimens from all cases were sent to local, provincial, national, and international laboratories for studies to identify an etiologic agent. The patients ranged from 24 to 78 years old; 60 percent were men. Transmission occurred only after close contact. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (in 100 percent of cases) and malaise (in 70 percent), followed by nonproductive cough (in 100 percent) and dyspnea (in 80 percent) associated with infiltrates on chest radiography (in 100 percent). Lymphopenia (in 89 percent of those for whom data were available), elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels (in 80 percent), elevated aspartate aminotransferase levels (in 78 percent), and elevated creatinine kinase levels (in 56 percent) were common. Empirical therapy most commonly included antibiotics, oseltamivir, and intravenous ribavirin. Mechanical ventilation was required in five patients. Three patients died, and five have had clinical improvement. The results of laboratory investigations were negative or not clinically significant except for the amplification of human metapneumovirus from respiratory specimens from five of nine patients and the isolation and amplification of a novel coronavirus from five of nine patients. In four cases both pathogens were isolated. SARS is a condition associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. It appears to be of viral origin, with patterns suggesting droplet or contact transmission. The role of human metapneumovirus, a novel coronavirus, or both requires further investigation. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Evaluation of reverse transcription-PCR assays for rapid diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome associated with a novel coronavirus.

            The reverse transcription (RT)-PCR protocols of two World Health Organization (WHO) severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) network laboratories (WHO SARS network laboratories at The University of Hong Kong [WHO-HKU] and at the Bernhard-Nocht Institute in Hamburg, Germany [WHO-Hamburg]) were evaluated for rapid diagnosis of a novel coronavirus (CoV) associated with SARS in Hong Kong. A total of 303 clinical specimens were collected from 163 patients suspected to have SARS. The end point of both WHO-HKU and WHO-Hamburg RT-PCR assays was determined to be 0.1 50% tissue culture infective dose. Using seroconversion to CoV as the "gold standard" for SARS CoV diagnosis, WHO-HKU and WHO-Hamburg RT-PCR assays exhibited diagnostic sensitivities of 61 and 68% (nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens), 65 and 72% (throat swab specimens), 50 and 54% (urine specimens), and 58 and 63% (stool specimens), respectively, with an overall specificity of 100%. For patients confirmed to have SARS CoV and from whom two or more respiratory specimens were collected, testing the second specimen increased the sensitivity from 64 and 71% to 75 and 79% for the WHO-HKU and WHO-Hamburg RT-PCR assays, respectively. Testing more than one respiratory specimen will maximize the sensitivity of PCR assays for SARS CoV.
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              Acute respiratory syndrome. China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, and Viet Nam.

               Anonymous (2003)

                Author and article information

                Dermatology (Basel)
                Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, )
                February 2006
                22 February 2006
                : 212
                : Suppl 1
                : 119-123
                aLaboratory of Public Health, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University
                bDepartment of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan
                Author notes
                *Hiroaki Kariwa, Laboratory of Public Health, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan), Tel. +81 11 706 5212, Fax +81 11 706 5213, E-Mail kariwa@
                Copyright © 2020 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 15, Pages: 5
                Oro-Buccal Antisepsis


                infection control, severe acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus, povidone-iodine


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