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      Osteoarthritis and nutrition. From nutraceuticals to functional foods: a systematic review of the scientific evidence

      , 1 , 1

      Arthritis Research & Therapy

      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          The scientific and medical community remains skeptical regarding the efficacy of nutrition for osteoarthritis despite their broad acceptation by patients. In this context, this paper systematically reviews human clinical trials evaluating the effects of nutritional compounds on osteoarthritis. We searched the Medline, Embase, and Biosis databases from their inception to September 2005 using the terms random, double-blind method, trial, study, placebo, and osteoarthritis. We selected all peer-reviewed articles reporting the results of randomised human clinical trials (RCTs) in osteoarthritis that investigated the effects of oral interventions based on natural molecules. Studies on glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate were excluded. The quality of the RCTs was assessed with an osteoarthritic-specific standardised set of 12 criteria and a validated instrument. A best-evidence synthesis was used to categorise the scientific evidence behind each nutritional compound as good, moderate, or limited. A summary of the most relevant in vitro and animal studies is used to shed light on the potential mechanisms of action. Inclusion criteria were met by 53 RCTs out of the 2,026 identified studies. Good evidence was found for avocado soybean unsaponifiables. Moderate evidence was found for methylsulfonylmethane and SKI306X, a cocktail of plant extracts. Limited evidence was found for the Chinese plant extract Duhuo Jisheng Wan, cetyl myristoleate, lipids from green-lipped mussels, and plant extracts from Harpagophytum procumbens. Overall, scientific evidence exists for some specific nutritional interventions to provide symptom relief to osteoarthritic patients. It remains to be investigated whether nutritional compounds can have structure-modifying effects.

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          Most cited references 134

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          Recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: 2000 update. American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Osteoarthritis Guidelines.

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            Oxygen and reactive oxygen species in cartilage degradation: friends or foes?

             B Kurz,  Y Henrotin,  T Aigner (2005)
            This review is focused on the influence of oxygen and derived reactive species on chondrocytes aging, metabolic function and chondrogenic phenotype. A systematic computer-aided search of the Medline database. Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue, and consequently oxygen supply is reduced. Although the basal metabolic functions of the cells are well adapted to hypoxia, the chondrocyte phenotype seems to be oxygen sensitive. In vitro, hypoxia promotes the expression of the chondrogenic phenotype and cartilage-specific matrix formation, indicating that oxygen tension is probably a key parameter in chondrocyte culture, and particularly in the context of tissue engineering and stem cells transplantation. Besides the influence of oxygen itself, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the regulation of a number of basic chondrocyte activities such as cell activation, proliferation and matrix remodeling. However, when ROS production exceeds the antioxidant capacities of the cell, an "oxidative stress" occurs leading to structural and functional cartilage damages like cell death and matrix degradation. This paper is an overview of the in vitro and in vivo studies published on the influence of oxygen and derived reactive species on chondrocyte aging, metabolic function, and the chondrogenic phenotype. It shows, that oxygen and ROS play a crucial role in the control of cartilage homeostasis and that at this time, the exact role of "oxidative stress" in cartilage degradation still remains questionable.
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              n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: evidence explained and mechanisms explored.

              Long chain n-3 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) are found in fatty fish and in fish oils. Substantial evidence from epidemiological and case-control studies indicates that consumption of fish, fatty fish and long-chain n-3 PUFAs reduces the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Secondary prevention studies using long-chain n-3 PUFAs in patients post-myocardial infarction have shown a reduction in total and cardiovascular mortality, with an especially potent effect on sudden death. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs have been shown to decrease blood triacylglycerol (triglyceride) concentrations, to decrease production of chemoattractants, growth factors, adhesion molecules, inflammatory eicosanoids and inflammatory cytokines, to lower blood pressure, to increase nitric oxide production, endothelial relaxation and vascular compliance, to decrease thrombosis and cardiac arrhythmias and to increase heart rate variability. These mechanisms most likely explain the primary and secondary cardiovascular protection afforded by long-chain n-3 PUFA consumption. A recent study suggests that long-chain n-3 PUFAs might also act to stabilize advanced atherosclerotic plaques, perhaps through their anti-inflammatory effects. As a result of the robust evidence in their favour, a number of recommendations to increase intake of long-chain n-3 PUFAs have been made.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Arthritis Res Ther
                Arthritis Research & Therapy
                BioMed Central (London )
                1478-6354
                1478-6362
                2006
                19 July 2006
                : 8
                : 4
                : R127
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Nutrition and Health Department, Nestlé Research Center, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
                Article
                ar2016
                10.1186/ar2016
                1779427
                16859534
                Copyright © 2006 Ameye and Chee; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Orthopedics

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