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      Using Large-Eddy Simulations to Define Spectral and Coherence Characteristics of the Hurricane Boundary Layer for Wind-Energy Applications

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          Reduced drag coefficient for high wind speeds in tropical cyclones.

          The transfer of momentum between the atmosphere and the ocean is described in terms of the variation of wind speed with height and a drag coefficient that increases with sea surface roughness and wind speed. But direct measurements have only been available for weak winds; momentum transfer under extreme wind conditions has therefore been extrapolated from these field measurements. Global Positioning System sondes have been used since 1997 to measure the profiles of the strong winds in the marine boundary layer associated with tropical cyclones. Here we present an analysis of these data, which show a logarithmic increase in mean wind speed with height in the lowest 200 m, maximum wind speed at 500 m and a gradual weakening up to a height of 3 km. By determining surface stress, roughness length and neutral stability drag coefficient, we find that surface momentum flux levels off as the wind speeds increase above hurricane force. This behaviour is contrary to surface flux parameterizations that are currently used in a variety of modelling applications, including hurricane risk assessment and prediction of storm motion, intensity, waves and storm surges.
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            Modeled impact of anthropogenic warming on the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes.

            Several recent models suggest that the frequency of Atlantic tropical cyclones could decrease as the climate warms. However, these models are unable to reproduce storms of category 3 or higher intensity. We explored the influence of future global warming on Atlantic hurricanes with a downscaling strategy by using an operational hurricane-prediction model that produces a realistic distribution of intense hurricane activity for present-day conditions. The model projects nearly a doubling of the frequency of category 4 and 5 storms by the end of the 21st century, despite a decrease in the overall frequency of tropical cyclones, when the downscaling is based on the ensemble mean of 18 global climate-change projections. The largest increase is projected to occur in the Western Atlantic, north of 20 degrees N.
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              Resolution Requirements for the Simulation of Deep Moist Convection

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Boundary-Layer Meteorology
                Boundary-Layer Meteorol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0006-8314
                1573-1472
                October 2017
                June 8 2017
                October 2017
                : 165
                : 1
                : 55-86
                Article
                10.1007/s10546-017-0266-x
                a9e54a9d-1388-49f3-bcc2-7d5ad0679cbd
                © 2017

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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