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      Altruism Born of Suffering and Prosocial Behavior Following Adverse Life Events: A Review and Conceptualization

      Social Justice Research
      Springer Nature

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          The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary Statement

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            Temporal construal.

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              Positive change following trauma and adversity: a review.

              Empirical studies (n = 39) that documented positive change following trauma and adversity (e.g., posttraumatic growth, stress-related growth, perceived benefit, thriving; collectively described as adversarial growth) were reviewed. The review indicated that cognitive appraisal variables (threat, harm, and controllability), problem-focused, acceptance and positive reinterpretation coping, optimism, religion, cognitive processing, and positive affect were consistently associated with adversarial growth. The review revealed inconsistent associations between adversarial growth, sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, and income), and psychological distress variables (e.g., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder). However, the evidence showed that people who reported and maintained adversarial growth over time were less distressed subsequently. Methodological limitations and recommended future directions in adversarial growth research are discussed, and the implications of adversarial growth for clinical practice are briefly considered.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Social Justice Research
                Soc Just Res
                Springer Nature
                0885-7466
                1573-6725
                March 2009
                February 2009
                : 22
                : 1
                : 53-97
                Article
                10.1007/s11211-009-0088-1
                a9e6912c-a236-4194-b439-19d12406e58a
                © 2009
                History

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