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      An Update on Clinical Burden, Diagnostic Tools, and Therapeutic Options of Staphylococcus aureus

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          Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases ranging from mild skin and soft tissue infections, food poisoning to highly serious diseases such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and toxic shock syndrome. Proper diagnosis of pathogen and virulence factors is important for providing timely intervention in the therapy. Owing to the invasive nature of infections and the limited treatment options due to rampant spread of antibiotic-resistant strains, the trend for development of vaccines and antibody therapy is increasing at rapid rate than development of new antibiotics. In this article, we have discussed elaborately about the host-pathogen interactions, clinical burden due to S aureus infections, status of diagnostic tools, and treatment options in terms of prophylaxis and therapy.

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          Most cited references 154

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          Staphylococcus aureus infections.

           Franklin Lowy (1998)
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            The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus infections.

            Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of infections in both the community and hospital. Worldwide, the increasing resistance of this pathogen to various antibiotics complicates treatment of S aureus infections. Effective measures to prevent S aureus infections are therefore urgently needed. It has been shown that nasal carriers of S aureus have an increased risk of acquiring an infection with this pathogen. The nose is the main ecological niche where S aureus resides in human beings, but the determinants of the carrier state are incompletely understood. Eradication of S aureus from nasal carriers prevents infection in specific patient categories-eg, haemodialysis and general surgery patients. However, recent randomised clinical trials in orthopaedic and non-surgical patients failed to show the efficacy of eliminating S aureus from the nose to prevent subsequent infection. Thus we must elucidate the mechanisms behind S aureus nasal carriage and infection to be able to develop new preventive strategies. We present an overview of the current knowledge of the determinants (both human and bacterial) and risks of S aureus nasal carriage. Studies on the population dynamics of S aureus are also summarised.
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              Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology, underlying mechanisms, and associated risks.

              Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognized as an important pathogen in human disease. Due to an increasing number of infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, therapy has become problematic. Therefore, prevention of staphylococcal infections has become more important. Carriage of S. aureus appears to play a key role in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection. The ecological niches of S. aureus are the anterior nares. In healthy subjects, over time, three patterns of carriage can be distinguished: about 20% of people are persistent carriers, 60% are intermittent carriers, and approximately 20% almost never carry S. aureus. The molecular basis of the carrier state remains to be elucidated. In patients who repeatedly puncture the skin (e.g., hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis [CAPD] patients and intravenous drug addicts) and patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, increased carriage rates are found. Carriage has been identified as an important risk factor for infection in patients undergoing surgery, those on hemodialysis or CAPD, those with HIV infection and AIDS, those with intravascular devices, and those colonized with MRSA. Elimination of carriage has been found to reduce the infection rates in surgical patients and those on hemodialysis and CAPD. Elimination of carriage appears to be an attractive preventive strategy in patients at risk. Further studies are needed to optimize this strategy and to define the groups at risk.

                Author and article information

                Infect Dis (Auckl)
                Infect Dis (Auckl)
                Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment
                Infectious Diseases
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                22 May 2017
                : 10
                Department of Biotechnology, Vignan’s University, Guntur, India.
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Vijaya R Dirisala, Department of Biotechnology, Vignan’s University, Vadlamudi, Guntur 522213, Andhra Pradesh, India. Email: drdirisala@
                © The Author(s) 2017

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page(



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