+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Beneficial effects of a novel shark-skin collagen dressing for the promotion of seawater immersion wound healing

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Wounded personnel who work at sea often encounter a plethora of difficulties. The most important of these difficulties is seawater immersion. Common medical dressings have little effect when the affected area is immersed in seawater, and only rarely dressings have been reported for the treatment of seawater-immersed wounds. The objective of this study is to develop a new dressing which should be suitable to prevent the wound from seawater immersion and to promote the wound healing.


          Shark skin collagen (SSC) was purified via ethanol de-sugaring and de-pigmentation and adjusted for pH. A shark skin collagen sponge (SSCS) was prepared by freeze-drying. SSCS was attached to an anti-seawater immersion polyurethane (PU) film (SSCS + PU) to compose a new dressing. The biochemical properties of SSC and physicochemical properties of SSCS were assessed by standard methods. The effects of SSCS and SSCS + PU on the healing of seawater-immersed wounds were studied using a seawater immersion rat model. For the detection of SSCS effects on seawater-immersed wounds, 12 SD rats, with four wounds created in each rat, were divided into four groups: the 3rd day group, 5th day group, 7th day group and 12th day group. In each group, six wounds were treated with SSCS, three wounds treated with chitosan served as the positive control, and three wounds treated with gauze served as the negative control. For the detection of the SSCS + PU effects on seawater-immersed wounds, 36 SD rats were divided into three groups: the gauze (GZ) + PU group, chitosan (CS) + PU group and SSCS + PU group, with 12 rats in each group, and two wounds in each rat. The wound sizes were measured to calculate the healing rate, and histomorphology and the immunohistochemistry of the CD31 and TGF-β expression levels in the wounded tissues were measured by standard methods.


          The results of Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum, circular dichroism (CD) spectra, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and amino acid composition analyses of SSC demonstrated that SSC is type I collagen. SSCS had a homogeneous porous structure of approximately 200 μm, porosity rate of 83.57% ± 2.64%, water vapor transmission ratio (WVTR) of 4500 g/m 2, tensile strength of 1.79 ± 0.41 N/mm, and elongation at break of 4.52% ± 0.01%. SSCS had significant beneficial effects on seawater-immersed wound healing. On the 3rd day, the healing rates in the GZ negative control, CS positive control and SSCS rats were 13.94% ± 5.50%, 29.40% ± 1.10% and 47.24% ± 8.40%, respectively. SSCS also enhanced TGF-β and CD31 expression in the initial stage of the healing period. The SSCS + PU dressing effectively protected wounds from seawater immersion for at least 4 h, and accelerated re-epithelialization, vascularization and granulation formation of seawater-immersed wounds in the earlier stages of wound healing, and as well as significantly promoted wound healing. The SSCS + PU dressing also enhanced expression of TGF-β and CD31. The effects of SSCS and SSCS + PU were superior to those of both the chitosan and gauze dressings.


          SSCS has significant positive effects on the promotion of seawater-immersed wound healing, and a SSCS + PU dressing effectively prevents seawater immersion, and significantly promotes seawater-immersed wound healing.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 33

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4.

           U K Laemmli (1970)
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix: implications for fibrotic diseases and cancer

            Dynamic remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for development, wound healing and normal organ homeostasis. Life-threatening pathological conditions arise when ECM remodeling becomes excessive or uncontrolled. In this Perspective, we focus on how ECM remodeling contributes to fibrotic diseases and cancer, which both present challenging obstacles with respect to clinical treatment, to illustrate the importance and complexity of cell-ECM interactions in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Fibrotic diseases, which include pulmonary fibrosis, systemic sclerosis, liver cirrhosis and cardiovascular disease, account for over 45% of deaths in the developed world. ECM remodeling is also crucial for tumor malignancy and metastatic progression, which ultimately cause over 90% of deaths from cancer. Here, we discuss current methodologies and models for understanding and quantifying the impact of environmental cues provided by the ECM on disease progression, and how improving our understanding of ECM remodeling in these pathological conditions is crucial for uncovering novel therapeutic targets and treatment strategies. This can only be achieved through the use of appropriate in vitro and in vivo models to mimic disease, and with technologies that enable accurate monitoring, imaging and quantification of the ECM.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Signaling pathway of MAPK/ERK in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, senescence and apoptosis.

              The generic mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway is shared by four distinct cascades, including the extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK1/2), Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38-MAPK and ERK5. Mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway is reported to be associated with the cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, senescence and apoptosis. The literatures were searched extensively and this review was performed to review the role of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, senescence and apoptosis.

                Author and article information

                Mil Med Res
                Mil Med Res
                Military Medical Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                27 October 2017
                27 October 2017
                : 4
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1755 2063, GRID grid.415934.e, The PLA Key Laboratory of Biological Effect and Medical Protection on Naval Vessel Special Environment, Naval Medical Research Institute, ; Shanghai, 200433 China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9833 2433, GRID grid.412514.7, College of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, ; Shanghai, 201306 China
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8744 8924, GRID grid.268505.c, Research Center of TCM Processing Technology, , Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, ; Hang Zhou, 311401 China
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: Major Project of the Ministry of National Science and Technology of China
                Award ID: 2014ZX09J14103-09C
                Award Recipient :
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017


                Comment on this article