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      Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Human Diseases: From Molecular Mechanisms to Novel Treatments

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          Abstract

          It has been proposed that a chronic state of inflammation correlated with aging known as inflammaging, is implicated in multiple disease states commonly observed in the elderly population. Inflammaging is associated with over-abundance of reactive oxygen species in the cell, which can lead to oxidation and damage of cellular components, increased inflammation, and activation of cell death pathways. This review focuses on inflammaging and its contribution to various age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. Recently published mechanistic details of the roles of reactive oxygen species in inflammaging and various diseases will also be discussed. Advancements in potential treatments to ameliorate inflammaging, oxidative stress, and consequently, reduce the morbidity of multiple disease states will be explored.

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          Most cited references160

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          Cellular senescence in aging and age-related disease: from mechanisms to therapy.

          Cellular senescence, a process that imposes permanent proliferative arrest on cells in response to various stressors, has emerged as a potentially important contributor to aging and age-related disease, and it is an attractive target for therapeutic exploitation. A wealth of information about senescence in cultured cells has been acquired over the past half century; however, senescence in living organisms is poorly understood, largely because of technical limitations relating to the identification and characterization of senescent cells in tissues and organs. Furthermore, newly recognized beneficial signaling functions of senescence suggest that indiscriminately targeting senescent cells or modulating their secretome for anti-aging therapy may have negative consequences. Here we discuss current progress and challenges in understanding the stressors that induce senescence in vivo, the cell types that are prone to senesce, and the autocrine and paracrine properties of senescent cells in the contexts of aging and age-related diseases as well as disease therapy.
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            TIGAR, a p53-Inducible Regulator of Glycolysis and Apoptosis

            The p53 tumor-suppressor protein prevents cancer development through various mechanisms, including the induction of cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and the maintenance of genome stability. We have identified a p53-inducible gene named TIGAR (TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator). TIGAR expression lowered fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels in cells, resulting in an inhibition of glycolysis and an overall decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. These functions of TIGAR correlated with an ability to protect cells from ROS-associated apoptosis, and consequently, knockdown of endogenous TIGAR expression sensitized cells to p53-induced death. Expression of TIGAR may therefore modulate the apoptotic response to p53, allowing survival in the face of mild or transient stress signals that may be reversed or repaired. The decrease of intracellular ROS levels in response to TIGAR may also play a role in the ability of p53 to protect from the accumulation of genomic damage.
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              Superoxide dismutases: role in redox signaling, vascular function, and diseases.

              Excessive reactive oxygen species Revised abstract, especially superoxide anion (O₂•-), play important roles in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and atherosclerosis. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the major antioxidant defense systems against (O₂•-), which consist of three isoforms of SOD in mammals: the cytoplasmic Cu/ZnSOD (SOD1), the mitochondrial MnSOD (SOD2), and the extracellular Cu/ZnSOD (SOD3), all of which require catalytic metal (Cu or Mn) for their activation. Recent evidence suggests that in each subcellular location, SODs catalyze the conversion of (O₂•-), H2O2, which may participate in cell signaling. In addition, SODs play a critical role in inhibiting oxidative inactivation of nitric oxide, thereby preventing peroxynitrite formation and endothelial and mitochondrial dysfunction. The importance of each SOD isoform is further illustrated by studies from the use of genetically altered mice and viral-mediated gene transfer. Given the essential role of SODs in cardiovascular disease, the concept of antioxidant therapies, that is, reinforcement of endogenous antioxidant defenses to more effectively protect against oxidative stress, is of substantial interest. However, the clinical evidence remains controversial. In this review, we will update the role of each SOD in vascular biologies, physiologies, and pathophysiologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and angiogenesis. Because of the importance of metal cofactors in the activity of SODs, we will also discuss how each SOD obtains catalytic metal in the active sites. Finally, we will discuss the development of future SOD-dependent therapeutic strategies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                10 September 2019
                September 2019
                : 20
                : 18
                : 4472
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Arts and Sciences, University of Maine Presque Isle Campus, Presque Isle, ME 04769, USA
                [2 ]Radiologic Sciences and Respiratory Therapy Division, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
                [3 ]Interdisciplinary Biophysics Graduate Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: zuo.4@ 123456osu.edu ; Tel.: +1-270-768-9609
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0553-0994
                Article
                ijms-20-04472
                10.3390/ijms20184472
                6769561
                31510091
                a9f87e8d-2e7d-4917-a3c5-4708c3de389c
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 27 June 2019
                : 04 September 2019
                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology
                reactive oxygen species,cardiovascular disease,copd,cancer,neurodegenerative disease,diabetes,rheumatoid arthritis

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