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      Understanding of chest pain in microvascular disease proved by cardiac magnetic resonance image (UMPIRE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial


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          Microvascular angina (MVA) is characterized by anginal chest pain, an abnormal stress test, and normal coronary arteries on coronary angiography. Although the exact pathogenesis remains unclear, endothelial dysfunction is a contributing factor. To date, there exists no specific therapy for this disease. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor improves the endothelial function and subsequently microvascular circulation. The aim of this study is to identify whether udenafil offers benefits in the treatment of MVA in female patients, who have a perfusion defect in their cardiac magnetic resonance image (CMR), but normal coronary arteries.


          The ‘Understanding of Chest Pain in Microvascular Disease Proved by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Image: (UMPIRE)’ trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled trial, designed to evaluate the effect of udenafil on myocardial ischemia and symptoms in female patients with MVA. The myocardial ischemia will be quantified by myocardial stress perfusion defect in CMR. A total of 80 patients with proven perfusion defect in adenosine-stress CMR will be randomly assigned to either the udenafil treatment group (daily dose of 100 mg) or the placebo group for three months. The primary endpoint is >25% improvement in perfusion defect size in adenosine-stress CMR from baseline. The secondary endpoints include <25% improvement in perfusion defect size, chest pain frequency, ST depression in stress test, Duke score in stress test, quality of life (QoL) assessment by SF-36 questionnaire, sexual dysfunction assessment by BISF-W (Brief Index of Sexual Functioning for Women) self-assessment questionnaire, and biomarkers for endothelial function.


          The UMPIRE trial is the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of udenafil in female MVA patients. If udenafil demonstrates cardioprotective effects, it may provide a novel therapeutic option to reduce myocardial ischemia and improve cardiac function in female MVA patients.

          Trial registration

          Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01769482 (registered on 20 November 2012).

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          Most cited references 24

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          Endothelial dysfunction: a multifaceted disorder (The Wiggers Award Lecture).

          Endothelial cells synthesize and release various factors that regulate angiogenesis, inflammatory responses, hemostasis, as well as vascular tone and permeability. Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with a number of pathophysiological processes. Oxidative stress appears to be a common denominator underlying endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases. However, depending on the pathology, the vascular bed studied, the stimulant, and additional factors such as age, sex, salt intake, cholesterolemia, glycemia, and hyperhomocysteinemia, the mechanisms underlying the endothelial dysfunction can be markedly different. A reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), an alteration in the production of prostanoids, including prostacyclin, thromboxane A2, and/or isoprostanes, an impairment of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, as well as an increased release of endothelin-1, can individually or in association contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Therapeutic interventions do not necessarily restore a proper endothelial function and, when they do, may improve only part of these variables.
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            Primary coronary microvascular dysfunction: clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management.

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              Imipramine in patients with chest pain despite normal coronary angiograms.

              Ten to 30 percent of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization because of chest pain are found to have normal coronary angiograms. Because these patients may have a visceral pain syndrome unrelated to myocardial ischemia, we investigated whether drugs that are useful in chronic pain syndromes might also be beneficial in such patients. Sixty consecutive patients underwent cardiac, esophageal, psychiatric, and pain-sensitivity testing and then participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled three-week trial of clonidine at a dose of 0.1 mg twice daily (20 patients), imipramine at a dose of 50 mg nightly with a morning placebo (20 patients), or placebo twice daily (20 patients); this treatment phase was compared with an identical period of twice-daily placebo for all patients (placebo phase). Thirteen (22 percent) of the 60 patients had ischemic-appearing electrocardiographic responses to exercise, 22 of the 54 tested (41 percent) had abnormal esophageal motility, 38 of 60 (63 percent) had one or more psychiatric disorders, and 52 of 60 (87 percent) had their characteristic chest pain provoked by right ventricular electrical stimulation or intracoronary infusion of adenosine. During the treatment phase, the imipramine group had a mean (+/- SD) reduction of 52 +/- 25 percent in episodes of chest pain, the clonidine group had a reduction of 39 +/- 51 percent, and the placebo group a reduction of 1 +/- 86 percent, all as compared with the placebo phase of the trial. Only the improvement with imipramine was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Repeat assessment of sensitivity to cardiac pain while the patients were receiving treatment showed significant improvement only in the imipramine group (P = 0.01). The response to imipramine did not depend on the results of cardiac, esophageal, or psychiatric testing at base line, or on the change in the psychiatric profile during the course of the study, which generally improved in all three study groups. Imipramine improved the symptoms of patients with chest pain and normal coronary angiograms, possibly through a visceral analgesic effect.

                Author and article information

                BioMed Central (London )
                26 August 2014
                26 August 2014
                : 15
                : 1
                [ ]Cardiovascular Imaging Center, Heart, Vascular, Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, #50 Irwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 135-710 Korea
                [ ]Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Gumiro 166, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-707 Republic of Korea
                [ ]Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gumiro 166, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-707 Republic of Korea
                [ ]Medical Research Collaborating Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Gumiro 166, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-707 Republic of Korea
                © Park et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

                This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                microvascular angina, pde-5 inhibitors, cardiac mri


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