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    The Role of Local Knowledge and Traditional Extraction Practices in the Management of Giant Earthworms in Brazil

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        Abstract

        The giant earthworm, Rhinodrilus alatus (Righi 1971), has been captured in the southeastern Brazilian Cerrado biome for approximately 80 years and used as bait for amateur fishing throughout Brazil. Local knowledge and traditional extraction practices are crucial for the establishment of management strategies for the species because, although its extraction involves conflicts and social and environmental impacts, the species is one of the major sources of income for approximately 3,000 people, especially for members of an Afro-descendant community that has approximately 2,000 inhabitants. Participatory tools, such as seasonal calendar, transect walks and participatory maps, were individually or collectively used with extractors and traders (former extractors), and 129 semi-structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with the same individuals between 2005 and 2012. The capture of Rhinodrilus alatus was observed in different seasons and areas of occurrence of the species in 17 municipalities, where this giant earthworm is the only species extracted for trade. All information obtained was verified by community members in 17 meetings. The extractors have an extensive knowledge of the life history, behavior, distribution, and possible impacts of climate change on the species. Different capture techniques, which have different impacts, are used during the dry and rainy seasons and are passed by the extractors through the generations. Local knowledge contributed to the establishment of agreements for the use of capture techniques that have less impact, to the expansion of scientific knowledge and the reassessment of the conservation status of Rhinodrilus alatus. The present study may serve as an example for management projects for other giant earthworm species in other regions of Brazil and in other countries.

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        Most cited references 24

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        Fauna used in popular medicine in Northeast Brazil

        Background Animal-based remedies constitute an integral part of Brazilian Traditional Medicine. Due to its long history, zootherapy has in fact become an integral part of folk medicine both in rural and urban areas of the country. In this paper we summarize current knowledge on zootherapeutic practices in Northeast of Brazil, based on information compiled from ethnobiological scientific literature. Methods In order to examine the diversity of animals used in traditional medicine in Northeast of Brazil, all available references or reports of folk remedies based on animals sources were examined. 34 sources were analyzed. Only taxa that could be identified to species level were included in assessment of medicinal animal species. Scientific names provided in publications were updated. Results The review revealed that at least 250 animal species (178 vertebrates and 72 invertebrates) are used for medicinal purposes in Northeast of Brazil. The inventoried species comprise 10 taxonomic categories and belong to 141 Families. The groups with the greatest number of species were fishes (n = 58), mammals (n = 47) and reptiles (n = 37). The zootherapeutical products are used for the treatment of different illnesses. The most widely treated condition were asthma, rheumatism and sore throat, conditions, which had a wide variety of animals to treat them with. Many animals were used for the treatment of multiple ailments. Beyond the use for treating human diseases, zootherapeutical resources are also used in ethnoveterinary medicine Conclusion The number of medicinal species catalogued was quite expressive and demonstrate the importance of zootherapy as alternative therapeutic in Northeast of Brazil. Although widely diffused throughout Brazil, zootherapeutic practices remain virtually unstudied. There is an urgent need to examine the ecological, cultural, social, and public health implications associated with fauna usage, including a full inventory of the animal species used for medicinal purposes and the socio-cultural context associated with their consumption.
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          The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth.

          Some effects of humic acids, formed during the breakdown of organic wastes by earthworms (vermicomposting), on plant growth were evaluated. In the first experiment, humic acids were extracted from pig manure vermicompost using the classic alkali/acid fractionation procedure and mixed with a soilless container medium (Metro-Mix 360), to provide a range of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of container medium, and tomato seedlings were grown in the mixtures. In the second experiment, humates extracted from pig manure and food wastes vermicomposts were mixed with vermiculite to provide a range of 0, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, and 4,000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of the container medium, and cucumber seedlings were grown in the mixtures. Both tomato and cucumber seedlings were watered daily with a solution containing all nutrients required to ensure that any differences in growth responses were not nutrient-mediated. The incorporation of both types of vermicompost-derived humic acids, into either type of soilless plant growth media, increased the growth of tomato and cucumber plants significantly, in terms of plant heights, leaf areas, shoot and root dry weights. Plant growth increased with increasing concentrations of humic acids incorporated into the medium up to a certain proportion, but this differed according to the plant species, the source of the vermicompost, and the nature of the container medium. Plant growth tended to be increased by treatments of the plants with 50-500 mg/kg humic acids, but often decreased significantly when the concentrations of humic acids derived in the container medium exceeded 500-1,000 mg/kg. These growth responses were most probably due to hormone-like activity of humic acids from the vermicomposts or could have been due to plant growth hormones adsorbed onto the humates.
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            Rapidly shifting baselines in Yangtze fishing communities and local memory of extinct species.

            Local ecological knowledge can provide a unique source of data for conservation, especially in efforts to investigate the status of rare or possibly extinct species, but it is unlikely to remain constant over time. Loss of perspective about past ecological conditions caused by lack of communication between generations may create "shifting baseline syndrome," in which younger generations are less aware of local species diversity or abundance in the recent past. This phenomenon has been widely discussed, but has rarely been examined quantitatively. We present new evidence of shifting baselines in local perception of regional species declines and on the duration of "community memory" of extinct species on the basis of extensive interviews with fishers in communities across the middle-lower Yangtze basin. Many Yangtze species have experienced major declines in recent decades, and the Yangtze River dolphin or baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) and Yangtze paddlefish (Psephurus gladius) may have become extinct during the 21(st) century. Although informants across all age classes were strongly aware of the Yangtze ecosystem's escalating resource depletion and environmental degradation, older informants were more likely to recognize declines in two commercially important fish species, Reeves' shad (Tenualosa reevesii) and Yangtze pufferfish (Takifugu fasciatus), and to have encountered baiji and paddlefish in the past. Age was also a strong predictor of whether informants had even heard of baiji or paddlefish, with younger informants being substantially less likely to recognize either species. A marked decrease in local knowledge about the Yangtze freshwater megafauna matched the time of major population declines of these species from the 1970s onwards, and paddlefish were already unknown to over 70% of all informants below the age of 40 and to those who first started fishing after 1995. This rapid rate of cultural baseline shift suggests that once even megafaunal species cease to be encountered on a fairly regular basis, they are rapidly forgotten by local communities.
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              Author and article information

              Affiliations
              Departamento de Biologia Geral, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
              NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, UNITED KINGDOM
              Author notes

              Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

              Conceived and designed the experiments: MAD. Performed the experiments: MAD AQG. Analyzed the data: MAD AQG RHPS. Wrote the paper: MAD AQG RHPS.

              [¤]

              Current address: Departamento de Biologia Geral, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

              Contributors
              Role: Academic Editor
              Journal
              PLoS One
              PLoS ONE
              plos
              plosone
              PLoS ONE
              Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA)
              1932-6203
              14 April 2015
              2015
              : 10
              : 4
              25874618
              4396981
              10.1371/journal.pone.0123913
              PONE-D-14-45376
              (Academic Editor)

              This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

              Counts
              Figures: 8, Tables: 0, Pages: 19
              Product
              Funding
              This study was funded by Instituto Estadual de Florestas de Minas Gerais (www.ief.mg.gov.br); Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa (www.ufmg.br/prpq) and Pró-Reitoria de Extensão (www2.ufmg.br/proex) of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (www.ufmg.br); Ministério Público do Estado de Minas Gerais (www.mpmg.mp.br); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (www.capes.gov.br); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (www.fapemig.br); Conservação Internacional do Brasil (www.conservacao.org); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (www.cnpq.br). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
              Categories
              Research Article
              Custom metadata
              The paper describes illegal activity, and ethical restrictions prevent public sharing of data. Data requests may be sent to the corresponding author.
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