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      Circulating cell adhesion molecules and death in patients with coronary artery disease.


      blood, C-Reactive Protein, analysis, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Cohort Studies, Coronary Disease, mortality, E-Selectin, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Germany, Aged, epidemiology, Humans, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, Male, Middle Aged, Predictive Value of Tests, Proportional Hazards Models, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Sensitivity and Specificity, Survival Rate, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1

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          Vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and E-selectin mediate adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes to the vascular endothelial wall and may promote plaque growth and instability. In a prospective study, we evaluated the effect of soluble adhesion molecules on the risk of future cardiovascular events among patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Results- -We obtained baseline samples from a prospective cohort of 1246 patients with CAD. Besides various markers of inflammation, soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1), sICAM-1, and sE-selectin were determined. Follow-up information on cardiovascular events was obtained (mean, 2.7; maximum, 4.1 years). Independently higher levels of sVCAM-1 (1932 versus 1128 ng/mL; P<0.0001), sICAM-1 (353 versus 287 ng/mL; P=0.015), and sE-selectin (81 versus 63 ng/mL; P=0.003) were observed in patients with future death from cardiovascular causes. In a multivariate model, fatal risk was 2.1-fold (1.1 to 4.0) higher in patients within the top quartile of baseline sVCAM-1 concentrations compared with lower quartiles. This association was present independent of general inflammatory response as reflected by low or high C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. In a model that simultaneously controlled for all inflammatory and soluble adhesion markers determined, only sVCAM-1 remained independently significant for future fatal cardiovascular events, with a 2.8-fold increase in risk (P=0.003). Soluble adhesion molecules sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, and sE-selectin were significantly related to future death from cardiovascular causes among patients with documented CAD. Especially sVCAM-1 added to the predictive value of classic risk factors and hs-CRP in determining the risk of future cardiovascular death.

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