70
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Culturable associated-bacteria of the sponge Theonella swinhoei show tolerance to high arsenic concentrations

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Sponges are potent filter feeders and as such are exposed to high fluxes of toxic trace elements, which can accumulate in their body over time. Such is the case of the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei, which has been shown to accumulate up to 8500 mg/Kg of the highly toxicelement arsenic. T. swinhoei is known to harbor a multitude of sponge-associated bacteria, so it is hypothesized that the associated-bacteria will be tolerant to high arsenic concentration. This study also investigates the fate of the arsenic accumulated in the sponge to test if the associated-bacteria have an important role in the arsenic accumulation process of their host, since bacteria are key players in the natural arsenic cycle. Separation of the sponge to sponge cells and bacteria enriched fractions showed that arsenic is accumulated by the bacteria. Sponge-associated, arsenic-tolerant bacteria were cultured in the presence of 5 mM of either arsenate or arsenite (equivalent to 6150 mg/Kg arsenic, dry weight). The 54 isolated bacteria were grouped to 15 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and isolates belonging to 12 OTUs were assessed for tolerance to arsenate at increased concentrations up to 100 mM. Eight of the 12 OTUs tolerated an order of magnitude increase in the concentration of arsenate, and some exhibited external biomineralization of arsenic–magnesium salts. The biomineralization of this unique mineral was directly observed in bacteria for the first time. These results may provide an explanation for the ability of the sponge to accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Furthermore arsenic-mineralizing bacteria can potentially be used for the study of bioremediation, as arsenic toxicity affects millions of people worldwide.

          Related collections

          Most cited references55

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities.

          mothur aims to be a comprehensive software package that allows users to use a single piece of software to analyze community sequence data. It builds upon previous tools to provide a flexible and powerful software package for analyzing sequencing data. As a case study, we used mothur to trim, screen, and align sequences; calculate distances; assign sequences to operational taxonomic units; and describe the alpha and beta diversity of eight marine samples previously characterized by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. This analysis of more than 222,000 sequences was completed in less than 2 h with a laptop computer.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Introducing EzTaxon-e: a prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species.

            Despite recent advances in commercially optimized identification systems, bacterial identification remains a challenging task in many routine microbiological laboratories, especially in situations where taxonomically novel isolates are involved. The 16S rRNA gene has been used extensively for this task when coupled with a well-curated database, such as EzTaxon, containing sequences of type strains of prokaryotic species with validly published names. Although the EzTaxon database has been widely used for routine identification of prokaryotic isolates, sequences from uncultured prokaryotes have not been considered. Here, the next generation database, named EzTaxon-e, is formally introduced. This new database covers not only species within the formal nomenclatural system but also phylotypes that may represent species in nature. In addition to an identification function based on Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (blast) searches and pairwise global sequence alignments, a new objective method of assessing the degree of completeness in sequencing is proposed. All sequences that are held in the EzTaxon-e database have been subjected to phylogenetic analysis and this has resulted in a complete hierarchical classification system. It is concluded that the EzTaxon-e database provides a useful taxonomic backbone for the identification of cultured and uncultured prokaryotes and offers a valuable means of communication among microbiologists who routinely encounter taxonomically novel isolates. The database and its analytical functions can be found at http://eztaxon-e.ezbiocloud.net/.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              The ribosomal database project (RDP-II): introducing myRDP space and quality controlled public data

              Substantial new features have been implemented at the Ribosomal Database Project in response to the increased importance of high-throughput rRNA sequence analysis in microbial ecology and related disciplines. The most important changes include quality analysis, including chimera detection, for all available rRNA sequences and the introduction of myRDP Space, a new web component designed to help researchers place their own data in context with the RDP's data. In addition, new video tutorials describe how to use RDP features. Details about RDP data and analytical functions can be found at the RDP-II website ().
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                25 February 2015
                2015
                : 6
                : 154
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv, Israel
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ute Hentschel, University of Wuerzburg, Germany

                Reviewed by: Heidi M. Luter, North Australian Marine Research Alliance – Charles; Darwin University, Australia Detmer Sipkema, Wageningen University, Netherlands; Max Haggblom, Rutgers University, USA

                *Correspondence: Ray Keren, Department of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel e-mail: mr.ray.keren@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Microbial Symbioses, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology.

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2015.00154
                4340220
                aa0e680e-5441-4a06-bc02-72eeb610989e
                Copyright © 2015 Keren, Lavy, Mayzel and Ilan.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 10 November 2014
                : 10 February 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 70, Pages: 11, Words: 0
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Original Research Article

                Microbiology & Virology
                arsenic,porifera,symbionts,bacterial cultivation,theonella swinhoei,bioremediation

                Comments

                Comment on this article