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      Incipient Diabetic Retinopathy – Insights from an Experimental Model

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          Abstract

          Vascular complications of chronic hyperglycemia including diabetic retinopathy are an increasing therapeutic and socioeconomic challenge. The epidemiology of diabetic eye disease has been well described, and there is as yet no clear indication for a reduction of incidence of blindness. Due to the complex multifactorial nature of the damage to diabetic vessels, it had been difficult to identify key targets for treatment and prevention. Novel techniques to study molecules and mechanisms involved in retinal vessel development and vascular cell interactions improved the understanding of retinal cell biology and pathobiology. A unifying concept has been proposed which links hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial overproduction of reactive oxygen species with long-known biochemical alterations such as the formation of advanced glycation end products or the activation of the protein kinase C pathway. Specific inhibitors were identified that inhibited multiple biochemical abnormalities downstream of oxidative stress induced by high glucose.

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          Most cited references20

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          Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

          Cardiovascular morbidity is a major burden in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the Steno-2 Study, we compared the effect of a targeted, intensified, multifactorial intervention with that of conventional treatment on modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. The primary end point of this open, parallel trial was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, revascularization, and amputation. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive conventional treatment in accordance with national guidelines and 80 to receive intensive treatment, with a stepwise implementation of behavior modification and pharmacologic therapy that targeted hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and microalbuminuria, along with secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease with aspirin. The mean age of the patients was 55.1 years, and the mean follow-up was 7.8 years. The decline in glycosylated hemoglobin values, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels measured after an overnight fast, and urinary albumin excretion rate were all significantly greater in the intensive-therapy group than in the conventional-therapy group. Patients receiving intensive therapy also had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.24 to 0.73), nephropathy (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.17 to 0.87), retinopathy (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.21 to 0.86), and autonomic neuropathy (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.79). A target-driven, long-term, intensified intervention aimed at multiple risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria reduces the risk of cardiovascular and microvascular events by about 50 percent. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Molecular regulation of vessel maturation.

            The maturation of nascent vasculature, formed by vasculogenesis or angiogenesis, requires recruitment of mural cells, generation of an extracellular matrix and specialization of the vessel wall for structural support and regulation of vessel function. In addition, the vascular network must be organized so that all the parenchymal cells receive adequate nutrients. All of these processes are orchestrated by physical forces as well as by a constellation of ligands and receptors whose spatio-temporal patterns of expression and concentration are tightly regulated. Inappropriate levels of these physical forces or molecules produce an abnormal vasculature--a hallmark of various pathologies. Normalization of the abnormal vasculature can facilitate drug delivery to tumors and formation of a mature vasculature can help realize the promise of therapeutic angiogenesis and tissue engineering.
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              Diabetic retinopathy.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2007
                June 2007
                20 June 2007
                : 221
                : 4
                : 269-274
                Affiliations
                5th Medical Department, University Hospital Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
                Article
                101930 Ophthalmologica 2007;221:269–274
                10.1159/000101930
                17579294
                aa15690a-2071-460e-9e52-0133c79fa839
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 39, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Acellular capillary,Ang-Tie,Pericyte,Diabetic retinopathy

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