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      Propositional Models of Evaluative Conditioning

      1 ,
      Social Psychological Bulletin
      evaluative conditioning, propositions, learning

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          Although propositional models of associative learning are often referred to in the literature on evaluative conditioning (EC), it has not yet been clearly stipulated what propositional models of EC entail. The aim of this paper is to describe in more detail the assumptions of propositional models of EC. This includes a discussion of the core assumption that EC is mediated by propositions about stimulus relations, as well as assumptions about the processes via which those propositions are formed and influence liking. Based on this discussion, I put forward the Integrated Propositional Model that combines a number of these assumptions and discuss some of the predictions that can be derived from this model. The paper ends with a reflection on the limitations and strengths of propositional models of EC.

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          The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory?

          A free-energy principle has been proposed recently that accounts for action, perception and learning. This Review looks at some key brain theories in the biological (for example, neural Darwinism) and physical (for example, information theory and optimal control theory) sciences from the free-energy perspective. Crucially, one key theme runs through each of these theories - optimization. Furthermore, if we look closely at what is optimized, the same quantity keeps emerging, namely value (expected reward, expected utility) or its complement, surprise (prediction error, expected cost). This is the quantity that is optimized under the free-energy principle, which suggests that several global brain theories might be unified within a free-energy framework.
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            Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: an integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change.

            A central theme in recent research on attitudes is the distinction between deliberate, "explicit" attitudes and automatic, "implicit" attitudes. The present article provides an integrative review of the available evidence on implicit and explicit attitude change that is guided by a distinction between associative and propositional processes. Whereas associative processes are characterized by mere activation independent of subjective truth or falsity, propositional reasoning is concerned with the validation of evaluations and beliefs. The proposed associative-propositional evaluation (APE) model makes specific assumptions about the mutual interplay of the 2 processes, implying several mechanisms that lead to symmetric or asymmetric changes in implicit and explicit attitudes. The model integrates a broad range of empirical evidence and implies several new predictions for implicit and explicit attitude change.
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              Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes


                Author and article information

                Social Psychological Bulletin
                Social Psychological Bulletin
                20 September 2018
                : 13
                : 3
                : e28046
                [1 ] Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Ghent University Ghent Belgium
                Author notes
                Corresponding author:

                Jan De Houwer (Ghent University, Henri Dunantlaan 2, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. E-mail: Jan.DeHouwer@ 123456UGent.be )

                Handling editor: Yoav Bar-Anan (Ben Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel)

                Jan De Houwer

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 8 December 2017
                : 18 June 2018
                Review Article
                Attitudes and Attitude Change
                Cognitive Psychology
                Cognitive Representations
                Evaluative Conditioning
                Social Psychology

                learning,propositions,evaluative conditioning
                learning, propositions, evaluative conditioning


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