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      “Neuromyths” and Multiple Intelligences (MI) Theory: A Comment on Gardner, 2020

      discussion
      *
      Frontiers in Psychology
      Frontiers Media S.A.
      education, neuromyths, intelligence, multiple intelligences theory, matching hypothesis

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          Neuroscience and education: myths and messages.

          For several decades, myths about the brain - neuromyths - have persisted in schools and colleges, often being used to justify ineffective approaches to teaching. Many of these myths are biased distortions of scientific fact. Cultural conditions, such as differences in terminology and language, have contributed to a 'gap' between neuroscience and education that has shielded these distortions from scrutiny. In recent years, scientific communications across this gap have increased, although the messages are often distorted by the same conditions and biases as those responsible for neuromyths. In the future, the establishment of a new field of inquiry that is dedicated to bridging neuroscience and education may help to inform and to improve these communications.
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            An Evaluation of the Left-Brain vs. Right-Brain Hypothesis with Resting State Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging

            Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction) and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area), whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields). Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater “left-brained” or greater “right-brained” network strength across individuals. Small increases in lateralization with age were seen, but no differences in gender were observed.
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              Neuromythologies in education

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-1078
                06 August 2021
                2021
                : 12
                Affiliations
                Department of Psychology, Laurentian University , Greater Sudbury, ON, Canada
                Author notes

                Edited by: David Bueno, University of Barcelona, Spain

                Reviewed by: Anna K. Touloumakos, Panteion University, Greece; Kirsi Tirri, University of Helsinki, Finland

                *Correspondence: Luc Rousseau lrousseau@ 123456laurentian.ca

                This article was submitted to Educational Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Article
                10.3389/fpsyg.2021.720706
                8377349
                34421772
                aa2439bc-7867-4dde-8bc1-32a755cb2a10
                Copyright © 2021 Rousseau.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 5, Words: 3786
                Categories
                Psychology
                Opinion

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                education,neuromyths,intelligence,multiple intelligences theory,matching hypothesis

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