Blog
About

118
views
1
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    3
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and offending

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Purpose

          – A wealth of research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has led to increased understanding and identification of each of these developmental disorders. Existing literature has sparked controversial discussions regarding whether aspects of ASD and ADHD predispose individuals to criminality. The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between these conditions and offending.

          Design/methodology/approach

          – A review of the literature on ASD, ADHD and offending was undertaken. This paper looks at the particular focus of the literature on the involvement of individuals with ADHD and ASD within the criminal justice system.

          Findings

          – There is some evidence of a link between ADHD and criminality. However, the relationship between ASD and offending is a little more difficult to ascertain. Complicating this further is the relatively unexplored subject of comorbid ASD/ADHD and criminal behaviour. This paper found that additional cognitive deficits and conduct problems are associated with comorbid ASD/ADHD, highlighting the need for further research and development of interventions.

          Originality/value

          – This paper seeks to examine whether predictions can be made with regards to what offending behaviour may look like in an individual with comorbid ASD/ADHD. This paper reviews the literature on offending in relation to both disorders to examine whether predictions can be made with regards to what the offending behaviour of an individual with ASD and ADHD may look like.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 50

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis.

          In spite of the growing literature about adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of this disorder. To estimate the prevalence of adult ADHD and to identify its demographic correlates using meta-regression analysis. We used the MEDLINE, PsycLit and EMBASE databases as well as hand-searching to find relevant publications. The pooled prevalence of adult ADHD was 2.5% (95% CI 2.1-3.1). Gender and mean age, interacting with each other, were significantly related to prevalence of ADHD. Meta-regression analysis indicated that the proportion of participants with ADHD decreased with age when men and women were equally represented in the sample. Prevalence of ADHD in adults declines with age in the general population. We think, however, that the unclear validity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for this condition can lead to reduced prevalence rates by underestimation of the prevalence of adult ADHD.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Autism: the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory.

            The mind-blindness theory of autism spectrum conditions has been successful in explaining the social and communication difficulties that characterize these conditions but cannot explain the nonsocial features (the narrow interests, need for sameness, and attention to detail). A new theory, the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory, is summarized, which argues two factors are needed to explain the social and nonsocial features of the condition. This is related to other cognitive theories such as the weak central coherence theory and the executive dysfunction theory. The E-S theory is also extended to the extreme male brain theory as a way of understanding the biased sex ratio in autism. Etiological predictions are discussed, as are the clinical applications arising from the E-S theory.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Young adult outcome of hyperactive children: adaptive functioning in major life activities.

              The authors report the adaptive functioning of hyperactive and control children in southeastern Wisconsin (Milwaukee) followed to young adulthood. Interviews with participants concerning major life activities were collected between 1992 and 1996 and used along with employer ratings and high school records at the young adult follow-up (mean = 20 years, range 19-25) for this large sample of hyperactive (H; n = 149) and community control (CC; n = 72) children initially seen in 1978-1980 and studied for at least 13 years. Age, duration of follow-up, and IQ were statistically controlled as needed. The H group had significantly lower educational performance and attainment, with 32% failing to complete high school. H group members had been fired from more jobs and manifested greater employer-rated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms and lower job performance than the CC group. Socially, the H group had fewer close friends, more trouble keeping friends, and more social problems as rated by parents. Far more H than CC group members had become parents (38% versus 4%) and had been treated for sexually transmitted disease (16% versus 4%). Severity of lifetime conduct disorder was predictive of several of the most salient outcomes (failure to graduate, earlier sexual intercourse, early parenthood) whereas attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder at work were predictive of job performance and risk of being fired. These findings corroborate prior research and go further in identifying sexual activity and early parenthood as additional problematic domains of adaptive functioning at adulthood.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                AIA
                10.1108/AIA
                Advances in Autism
                Emerald Publishing
                2056-3868
                29 October 2015
                29 October 2015
                : 1
                : 2
                : 98-107
                Affiliations
                Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopment and the Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom
                Institute of Psychiatry, Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
                South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
                Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopment and the Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom
                Institute of Psychiatry, Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom AND Forensic Directorate, East London NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
                Article
                AIA-08-2015-0013.pdf
                10.1108/AIA-08-2015-0013
                © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
                Product
                Categories
                Articles
                Literature review
                Health & social care
                Learning & intellectual disabilities
                Custom metadata
                yes
                yes
                JOURNAL
                included

                Comments

                Comment on this article