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      Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis ofArchaeaandBacteriain Wind Cave, South Dakota

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      Geomicrobiology Journal

      Informa UK Limited

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          Archaea in coastal marine environments.

          Archaea (archaebacteria) are a phenotypically diverse group of microorganisms that share a common evolutionary history. There are four general phenotypic groups of archaea: the methanogens, the extreme halophiles, the sulfate-reducing archaea, and the extreme thermophiles. In the marine environment, archaeal habitats are generally limited to shallow or deep-sea anaerobic sediments (free-living and endosymbiotic methanogens), hot springs or deep-sea hydrothermal vents (methanogens, sulfate reducers, and extreme thermophiles), and highly saline land-locked seas (halophiles). This report provides evidence for the widespread occurrence of unusual archaea in oxygenated coastal surface waters of North America. Quantitative estimates indicated that up to 2% of the total ribosomal RNA extracted from coastal bacterioplankton assemblages was archaeal. Archaeal small-subunit ribosomal RNA-encoding DNAs (rDNAs) were cloned from mixed bacterioplankton populations collected at geographically distant sampling sites. Phylogenetic and nucleotide signature analyses of these cloned rDNAs revealed the presence of two lineages of archaea, each sharing the diagnostic signatures and structural features previously established for the domain Archaea. Both of these lineages were found in bacterioplankton populations collected off the east and west coasts of North America. The abundance and distribution of these archaea in oxic coastal surface waters suggests that these microorganisms represent undescribed physiological types of archaea, which reside and compete with aerobic, mesophilic eubacteria in marine coastal environments.
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            The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II): previewing a new autoaligner that allows regular updates and the new prokaryotic taxonomy.

            The Ribosomal Database Project-II (RDP-II) pro-vides data, tools and services related to ribosomal RNA sequences to the research community. Through its website (http://rdp.cme.msu.edu), RDP-II offers aligned and annotated rRNA sequence data, analysis services, and phylogenetic inferences (trees) derived from these data. RDP-II release 8.1 contains 16 277 prokaryotic, 5201 eukaryotic, and 1503 mitochondrial small subunit rRNA sequences in aligned and annotated format. The current public beta release of 9.0 debuts a new regularly updated alignment of over 50 000 annotated (eu)bacterial sequences. New analysis services include a sequence search and selection tool (Hierarchy Browser) and a phylogenetic tree building and visualization tool (Phylip Interface). A new interactive tutorial guides users through the basics of rRNA sequence analysis. Other services include probe checking, phylogenetic placement of user sequences, screening of users' sequences for chimeric rRNA sequences, automated alignment, production of similarity matrices, and services to plan and analyze terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP) experiments. The RDP-II email address for questions or comments is rdpstaff@msu.edu.
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              Explicit Calculation of the Rarefaction Diversity Measurement and the Determination of Sufficient Sample Size

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Geomicrobiology Journal
                Geomicrobiology Journal
                Informa UK Limited
                0149-0451
                1521-0529
                March 2004
                March 2004
                : 21
                : 2
                : 123-134
                Article
                10.1080/01490450490266389
                © 2004

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