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      High Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis Detected by RDT among the Residents of Seokmo-do (Island) in Ganghwa-Gun, Incheon City, Korea

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          Abstract

          Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among the residents of Seokmo-do (Island) in Ganghwa-gun, Incheon, Korea was surveyed for 4 years by a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) using recombinant fragment of major surface antigen (SAG1), GST-linker-SAG1A. Sera from 312, 343, 390, and 362 adult residents were collected on a yearly basis from 2010 to 2013, respectively. Total positive seroprevalence regardless of gender was 29.2, 35.3, 38.7, and 45.3% from 2010 to 2013, respectively. Positive seroprevalence in male adults was 43.9, 48.2, 45.4, and 55.3%, which was far higher than that of the corresponding female adults which was 20.7, 29.2, 33.9, and 38.9%, from 2010 to 2013, respectively. This high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Seokmo-do may have been caused in part by peculiar changes in the toxoplasmic environment of the island as it is a relatively isolated area preserving its natural habitat while also being connected by a bridge to the mainland. Further study is necessary to find out symptomatic patients and to confirm the risk factors.

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          Toxoplasmosis: A history of clinical observations.

          It has been 100 years since Toxoplasma gondii was initially described in Tunis by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) in the tissues of the gundi (Ctenodoactylus gundi) and in Brazil by Splendore (1908) in the tissues of a rabbit. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, Apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals that can cause several clinical syndromes including encephalitis, chorioretinitis, congenital infection and neonatal mortality. Fifteen years after the description of T. gondii by Nicolle and Manceaux a fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a child was reported by Janků. In 1939 Wolf, Cowen and Paige were the first to conclusively identify T. gondii as a cause of human disease. This review examines the clinical manifestations of infection with T. gondii and the history of the discovery of these manifestations.
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            Management of Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy.

            Acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy and its potentially tragic outcome for the fetus and newborn continue to occur in the United States, as well as worldwide, despite the fact that it can be prevented. The infection can be acquired through ingestion of infected, undercooked meat or contaminated food or water. Transmission to the fetus occurs almost solely in women who acquire their primary infection during gestation and can result in visual and hearing loss, mental and psychomotor retardation, seizures, hematological abnormalities, hepatosplenomegaly, or death. Systematic education and serological screening of pregnant women are the most reliable and currently available strategies for the prevention, diagnosis, and early treatment of the infection in the offspring; this is largely because toxoplasmosis in pregnant women most often goes unrecognized. Treatment of the infection in the fetus and infant during the first year of life has been demonstrated to significantly improve the clinical outcome.
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              Toxoplasmosis: A Global Threat

              Toxoplasmosis, a disease described worldwide, which is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, commonly involves the retina. The disease has a higher impact in immunocompromised individuals and in congenital infection because of the severity of central nervous system involvement. Although simple prophylactic measures could reduce transmission, T. gondii seroprevalence is still high, especially in South America. Educational campaigns and the development of new drugs to prevent primary infection could potentially reduce the burden of the disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Korean J Parasitol
                Korean J. Parasitol
                The Korean Journal of Parasitology
                The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine
                0023-4001
                1738-0006
                February 2017
                28 February 2017
                : 55
                : 1
                : 9-13
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
                [2 ]Genbody Inc., Cheonan 31116, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine and Inha Research Institute for Medical Sciences, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 22333, Korea
                [4 ]Department of Medical Environmental Biology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 06974, Korea
                [5 ]Department of Parasitology, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: ( howoo@ 123456catholic.ac.kr )
                Article
                kjp-55-1-9
                10.3347/kjp.2017.55.1.9
                5365263
                28285501
                aa3d12cf-4b98-469d-afd9-7be77c38f8f3
                Copyright © 2017 by The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 09 November 2016
                : 09 January 2017
                : 30 January 2017
                Categories
                Original Article

                Parasitology
                toxoplasma gondii,seroprevalence,rapid diagnostic test,seokmo-do (island),korea
                Parasitology
                toxoplasma gondii, seroprevalence, rapid diagnostic test, seokmo-do (island), korea

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