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      Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Effects of an Oral Sustained-Release Preparation of Disopyramide Prescribed for Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis

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          Aims: We evaluated the clinical pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release preparation of disopyramide phosphate (DSR) and its effects on supraventricular arrhythmias in hemodialysis patients. Methods: Eight hemodialysis patients with either paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) or PSVT plus paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (Paf) were given 150 mg of DSR 2 h before each hemodialysis. The frequency of PSVT, the duration of Paf before and 2 weeks after starting DSR and the blood concentration of the drug were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between serum levels of DSR before and after hemodialysis. The frequency of PSVT and the duration of Paf were significantly reduced by the therapy. Side effects and electrocardiographic abnormalities did not appear during the period. Conclusion: We conclude that hemodialysis does not remove DSR, and that a single dose of 150 mg of DSR given 2 h before hemodialysis is safe and sufficient to reduce the incidence of supraventricular arrhythmias.

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          Female gender as a risk factor for torsades de pointes associated with cardiovascular drugs.

          To test the hypothesis that female prevalence is greater than expected among reported cases of torsades de pointes associated with cardiovascular drugs that prolong cardiac repolarization. A MEDLINE search of the English-language literature for the period of 1980 through 1992, using the terms torsade de pointes, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, atypical ventricular tachycardia, proarrhythmia, and drug-induced ventricular tachycardia, supplemented by pertinent references (dating back to 1964) from the reviewed articles and by personal communications with researchers involved in this field. Ninety-three articles were identified describing at least one case of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (with gender specified) associated with quinidine, procainamide hydrochloride, disopyramide, amiodarone, sotalol hydrochloride, bepridil hydrochloride, or prenylamine. A total of 332 patients were included in the analysis following application of prospectively defined criteria (eg, corrected QT [QTc] interval of 0.45 second or greater while receiving drug). Clinical and electrocardiographic descriptors were extracted for analysis. Expected female prevalence for torsades de pointes associated with quinidine, procainamide, disopyramide, and aminodarone was conservatively estimated from gender-specific data reported for antiarrhythmic drug prescriptions in 1986, as derived from the National Disease and Therapeutic Index, a large pharmaceutical database; expected female prevalence for torsades de pointes associated with sotalol, bepridil, and prenylamine was assumed to be 50% or less since these agents are prescribed for male-predominant cardiovascular conditions. Women made up 70% (95% confidence interval, 64% to 75%) of the 332 reported cases of cardiovascular-drug-related torsades de pointes, and a female prevalence exceeding 50% was observed in 20 (83%) of 24 studies having at least four included cases. When analyzed according to various descriptors, women still constituted the majority (range, 51% to 94% of torsades de pointes cases), irrespective of the presence or absence of underlying coronary artery or rheumatic heart disease, left ventricular dysfunction, type of underlying arrhythmia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, bradycardia, concomitant digoxin treatment, or level of QTc at baseline or while receiving drug. When cases of torsades de pointes were analyzed by individual drug, observed female prevalence was always greater than expected, representing a statistically significant difference (P < .05) for all agents except procainamide. These findings strongly suggest that women are more prone than men to develop torsades de pointes during administration of cardiovascular drugs that prolong cardiac repolarization. The pathophysiological basis for, and therapeutic implications of, this gender disparity should be further investigated.
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            Total and free disopyramide by fluorescence polarization immunoassay and relationship between free fraction and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein


              Author and article information

              Blood Purif
              Blood Purification
              S. Karger AG
              23 February 2000
              : 18
              : 1
              : 55-58
              aThird Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, and bDepartment of Internal Medicine, Shimada Memorial Hospital, Fujioka, Gunma, Japan
              14408 Blood Purif 2000;18:55–58
              © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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              Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 12, Pages: 4
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