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      Natural products from microbes associated with insects

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          Summary

          Here we review discoveries of secondary metabolites from microbes associated with insects. We mainly focus on natural products, where the ecological role has been at least partially elucidated, and/or the pharmaceutical properties evaluated, and on compounds with unique structural features. We demonstrate that the exploration of specific microbial–host interactions, in combination with multidisciplinary dereplication processes, has emerged as a successful strategy to identify novel chemical entities and to shed light on the ecology and evolution of defensive associations.

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          Most cited references108

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          Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance in the 21st Century

          Dangerous, antibiotic resistant bacteria have been observed with increasing frequency over the past several decades. In this review the factors that have been linked to this phenomenon are addressed. Profiles of bacterial species that are deemed to be particularly concerning at the present time are illustrated. Factors including economic impact, intrinsic and acquired drug resistance, morbidity and mortality rates, and means of infection are taken into account. Synchronously with the waxing of bacterial resistance there has been waning antibiotic development. The approaches that scientists are employing in the pursuit of new antibacterial agents are briefly described. The standings of established antibiotic classes as well as potentially emerging classes are assessed with an emphasis on molecules that have been clinically approved or are in advanced stages of development. Historical perspectives, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum of activity, and preeminent members of each class are discussed.
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            Multiorganismal insects: diversity and function of resident microorganisms.

            All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contributing to nutrition, especially by providing essential amino acids, B vitamins, and, for fungal partners, sterols. Some microorganisms protect their insect hosts against pathogens, parasitoids, and other parasites by synthesizing specific toxins or modifying the insect immune system. Priorities for future research include elucidation of microbial contributions to detoxification, especially of plant allelochemicals in phytophagous insects, and resistance to pathogens; as well as their role in among-insect communication; and the potential value of manipulation of the microbiota to control insect pests.
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              Assembly-line enzymology for polyketide and nonribosomal Peptide antibiotics: logic, machinery, and mechanisms.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Guest Editor
                Journal
                Beilstein J Org Chem
                Beilstein J Org Chem
                Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
                Beilstein-Institut (Trakehner Str. 7-9, 60487 Frankfurt am Main, Germany )
                1860-5397
                2016
                19 February 2016
                : 12
                : 314-327
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology e.V., Beutenbergstrasse 11a, 07745 Jena, Germany
                [2 ]Centre for Social Evolution, Section for Ecology and Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, Building 3, 1st floor, 2100 Copenhagen East, Denmark
                Article
                10.3762/bjoc.12.34
                4778507
                26977191
                aa41e968-a109-4146-ad9a-11d80a259600
                Copyright © 2016, Beemelmanns et al; licensee Beilstein-Institut.

                This is an Open Access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                The license is subject to the Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry terms and conditions: ( http://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjoc)

                History
                : 8 December 2015
                : 2 February 2016
                Categories
                Review
                Chemistry
                Organic Chemistry

                Organic & Biomolecular chemistry
                biosynthesis,chemical ecology,natural products,secondary metabolism,structure elucidation,symbiosis

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