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      What can Parents' Self‐report of Reading Difficulties Tell Us about Their Children's Emergent Literacy at School Entry?


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          Research has linked family risk (FR) of reading difficulties (RD) with children's difficulties in emergent literacy development. This study is the first to apply parents' self‐report of RD as a proxy for FR in a large sample ( n = 1171) in order to test group differences in children's emergent literacy. Emergent literacy, the home literacy environment and children's interest in literacy and letters were compared across different groups of FR children around the school entry. The FR children performed lower in emergent literacy compared with not‐FR children. Furthermore, when comparing FR children with one parent reporting RD and children with both parents reporting RD, moderate group differences were found in Emergent Literacy. Finally, parents' self‐report of RD was a significant contributor of emergent literacy after controlling for the home literacy environment, children's gender, their interest in literacy and letters, months in kindergarten, vocabulary and parents' education. Our findings suggest that schools should monitor the reading development of children with parents self‐reporting RD closely – especially if both parents self‐report RD. © 2017 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


          Key Messages

          • The principal implication is the value of screening for reading difficulties with the simple but valid tool ‘parents' self‐report of reading difficulties (RD)’ in preschool years.

          • If the parents had themselves faced RD, their children are more likely to experience difficulties in developing emergent literacy.

          • The risk of difficulties in emergent literacy is higher when both parents have a history of RD.

          • Parents, especially with self‐reported RD, should be advised about the role of home literacy environment in the development of their children's emergent literacy.

          • Families with both parents self‐reporting RD have the fewest children's books at home.

          • Family risk children reported less interest in letters than not‐family risk children; parents should be advised to discuss letters and sounds during shared reading.

          • Schools should monitor the reading development of children with parents self‐reporting RD closely – especially if both parents self‐report RD.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Controlling the False Discovery Rate: A Practical and Powerful Approach to Multiple Testing

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            Specific reading disability (dyslexia): what have we learned in the past four decades?

            We summarize some of the most important findings from research evaluating the hypothesized causes of specific reading disability ('dyslexia') over the past four decades. After outlining components of reading ability, we discuss manifest causes of reading difficulties, in terms of deficiencies in component reading skills that might lead to such difficulties. The evidence suggests that inadequate facility in word identification due, in most cases, to more basic deficits in alphabetic coding is the basic cause of difficulties in learning to read. We next discuss hypothesized deficiencies in reading-related cognitive abilities as underlying causes of deficiencies in component reading skills. The evidence in these areas suggests that, in most cases, phonological skills deficiencies associated with phonological coding deficits are the probable causes of the disorder rather than visual, semantic, or syntactic deficits, although reading difficulties in some children may be associated with general language deficits. Hypothesized deficits in general learning abilities (e.g., attention, association learning, cross-modal transfer etc.) and low-level sensory deficits have weak validity as causal factors in specific reading disability. These inferences are, by and large, supported by research evaluating the biological foundations of dyslexia. Finally, evidence is presented in support of the idea that many poor readers are impaired because of inadequate instruction or other experiential factors. This does not mean that biological factors are not relevant, because the brain and environment interact to produce the neural networks that support reading acquisition. We conclude with a discussion of the clinical implications of the research findings, focusing on the need for enhanced instruction.
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              Development of emergent literacy and early reading skills in preschool children: evidence from a latent-variable longitudinal study.

              Although research has identified oral language, print knowledge, and phonological sensitivity as important emergent literacy skills for the development of reading, few studies have examined the relations between these aspects of emergent literacy or between these skills during preschool and during later reading. This study examined the joint and unique predictive significance of emergent literacy skills for both later emergent literacy skills and reading in two samples of preschoolers. Ninety-six children (mean age = 41 months, SD = 9.41) were followed from early to late preschool, and 97 children (mean age = 60 months, SD = 5.41) were followed from late preschool to kindergarten or first grade. Structural equation modeling revealed significant developmental continuity of these skills, particularly for letter knowledge and phonological sensitivity from late preschool to early grade school, both of which were the only unique predictors of decoding.

                Author and article information

                Dyslexia (Chichester, England)
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                18 September 2017
                February 2018
                : 24
                : 1 ( doiID: 10.1002/dys.v24.1 )
                : 84-105
                [ 1 ] Norwegian Reading Centre University of Stavanger Stavanger Norway
                [ 2 ] Division of Language and Communication Science City, University of London London UK
                Author notes
                [*] [* ]Correspondence to: Zahra Esmaeeli, Norwegian Reading Centre, University of Stavanger, Professor Olav Hanssens vei 10, 4021 Stavanger, Norway. E‐mail zahra.esmaeeli@ 123456uis.no
                DYS1571 DYS-16-10-RA-0054.R2
                © 2017 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 5, Pages: 22, Words: 7216
                Funded by: Research Council of Norway
                Award ID: 237861
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                February 2018
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:version= mode:remove_FC converted:05.03.2018


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