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      Becoming active again? Further thoughts on goal pursuit in chronic pain :

      ,

      Pain

      Elsevier BV

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          Psychological aspects of persistent pain: current state of the science.

          This article provides an overview of current research on psychological aspects of persistent pain. It is divided into 3 sections. In section 1, recent studies are reviewed that provide evidence that psychological factors are related to adjustment to persistent pain. This section addresses research on factors associated with increased pain and poorer adjustment to pain (ie, pain catastrophizing, pain-related anxiety and fear of pain, and helplessness) and factors associated with decreased pain and improved adjustment to pain (ie, self-efficacy, pain coping strategies, readiness to change, and acceptance). In section 2, we review recent research on behavioral and psychosocial interventions for patients with persistent pain. Topics addressed include early intervention, tailoring treatment, telephone/Internet-based treatment, caregiver-assisted treatment, and exposure-based protocols. In section 3, we conclude with a general discussion that highlights steps needed to advance this area of research including developing more comprehensive and integrative conceptual models, increasing attention to the social context of pain, examining the link of psychological factors to pain-related brain activation patterns, and investigating the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of psychological treatments for pain. This is one of several invited commentaries to appear in The Journal of Pain in recognition of The Decade of Pain Research. This article provides an overview of current research on psychological aspects of persistent pain, and highlights steps needed to advance this area of research. Copyright 2004 American Pain Society
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            Interference and facilitation among personal goals: differential associations with subjective well-being and persistent goal pursuit.

            Three studies demonstrate that mutual facilitation and interference among personal goals are distinct characteristics rather than mutually exclusive opposites and have different functions for psychological well-being and goal pursuit. The three studies vary in design (cross-sectional, short-termlongitudinal) and follow a multimethod approach using questionnaires, diaries, and objective behavioral information. Results show that interference among goals (resulting from resource constraints and incompatible goal attainment strategies) is negatively associated with trait and state well-being, whereas mutual facilitation among goals (resulting from instrumental goal relations and overlapping goal attainment strategies) is positively associated with involvement in goal pursuit.
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              Executive functions, self-regulation, and chronic pain: a review.

              Chronic pain conditions are complicated and challenging to live with. Capacity to adjust to such conditions may depend on the ability to self-regulate, that is, the ability to alter thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Self-regulation appears to rely on executive cognitive functions, and the current review, therefore, sought to draw attention to the impact of self-regulatory capacity and executive functions on chronic pain. Chronic pain conditions present with complex interactions of cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and physiological components for which self-regulatory ability is crucial. The ability to self-regulate varies, and self-regulatory strength appears to be a limited resource that can be fatigued. The many challenges of chronic pain conditions could, therefore, tax self-regulatory strength, leading to self-regulatory deficits. The current review proposes a relationship among pain, self-regulatory capacity, self-regulatory demands, executive functions, and self-regulatory fatigue, suggesting that executive functions and self-regulatory deficits are indeed part of the etiology and maintenance of chronic pain conditions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pain
                Pain
                Elsevier BV
                0304-3959
                2010
                June 2010
                : 149
                : 3
                : 422-423
                Article
                10.1016/j.pain.2010.02.038
                © 2010

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