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      Recent Developments of Liposomes as Nanocarriers for Theranostic Applications

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          Liposomes are nanocarriers comprised of lipid bilayers encapsulating an aqueous core. The ability of liposomes to encapsulate a wide variety of diagnostic and therapeutic agents has led to significant interest in utilizing liposomes as nanocarriers for theranostic applications. In this review, we highlight recent progress in developing liposomes as nanocarriers for a) diagnostic applications to detect proteins, DNA, and small molecule targets using fluorescence, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, and nuclear imaging; b) therapeutic applications based on small molecule-based therapy, gene therapy and immunotherapy; and c) theranostic applications for simultaneous detection and treatment of heavy metal toxicity and cancers. In addition, we summarize recent studies towards understanding of interactions between liposomes and biological components. Finally, perspectives on future directions in advancing the field for clinical translations are also discussed.

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          Most cited references 113

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          Is Open Access

          Stealth liposomes: review of the basic science, rationale, and clinical applications, existing and potential

          Among several promising new drug-delivery systems, liposomes represent an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles (“first-generation liposomes”) to “second-generation liposomes”, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. A significant step in the development of long-circulating liposomes came with inclusion of the synthetic polymer poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in liposome composition. The presence of PEG on the surface of the liposomal carrier has been shown to extend blood-circulation time while reducing mononuclear phagocyte system uptake (stealth liposomes). This technology has resulted in a large number of liposome formulations encapsulating active molecules, with high target efficiency and activity. Further, by synthetic modification of the terminal PEG molecule, stealth liposomes can be actively targeted with monoclonal antibodies or ligands. This review focuses on stealth technology and summarizes pre-clinical and clinical data relating to the principal liposome formulations; it also discusses emerging trends of this promising technology.
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            New Developments in Liposomal Drug Delivery.

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              Liposomes and nanoparticles: nanosized vehicles for drug delivery in cancer.

              Nanoscale drug delivery systems using liposomes and nanoparticles are emerging technologies for the rational delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of cancer. Their use offers improved pharmacokinetic properties, controlled and sustained release of drugs and, more importantly, lower systemic toxicity. The commercial availability of liposomal Doxil and albumin-nanoparticle-based Abraxane has focused attention on this innovative and exciting field. Recent advances in liposome technology offer better treatment of multidrug-resistant cancers and lower cardiotoxicity. Nanoparticles offer increased precision in chemotherapeutic targeting of prostate cancer and new avenues for the treatment of breast cancer. Here we review current knowledge on the two technologies and their potential applications to cancer treatment.

                Author and article information

                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                15 June 2016
                : 6
                : 9
                : 1336-1352
                1. Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA, 61801;
                2. Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA, 61801.
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding author: yi-lu@ 123456illinois.edu ; phone: 217-333-2619; fax: 217-244-3186.

                *These authors contributed equally to the work.

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                © Ivyspring International Publisher. Reproduction is permitted for personal, noncommercial use, provided that the article is in whole, unmodified, and properly cited. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for terms and conditions.


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