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      A comparative study of the ultrastructural characteristics of the mature spermatozoa of two fellodistomids Tergestia clonacantha and T. laticollis and contribution to the phylogenetic knowledge of the Gymnophalloidea Translated title: Étude comparative des caractéristiques ultrastructurales des spermatozoïdes mûrs de deux Fellodistomidae, Tergestia clonacantha et T. laticollis, et contribution à la connaissance phylogénétique des Gymnophalloidea

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          Abstract

          The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoa of Tergestia clonacantha and T. laticollis collected from the digestive tracts of fishes from New Caledonia is described using transmission electron microscopy and compared to that of related species. The spermatozoa of the two species exhibit the general pattern described in most digeneans, namely two axonemes with the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, nucleus, mitochondrion, cortical microtubules, an external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. The spermatozoa of T. clonacantha and T. laticollis show the same ultrastructural model with some specificities in each case, particularly in the disposition of the structures in the posterior extremities of the spermatozoon. This study confirms that ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon are useful tools for the phylogenetic analysis of the Digenea.

          Translated abstract

          L’ultrastructure des spermatozoïdes mûrs de Tergestia clonacantha et T. laticollis, prélevés dans le tube digestif de poissons de Nouvelle-Calédonie, est décrite par microscopie électronique à transmission et comparée à celle d’espèces apparentées. Les spermatozoïdes des deux espèces présentent la structure générale décrite chez la plupart des digènes, à savoir deux axonèmes du type 9 + « 1 » des Trepaxonemata, un noyau, une mitochondrie, des microtubules corticaux, des ornementations externes de la membrane plasmique, des corps épineux et des granules de glycogène. Les spermatozoïdes de T. clonacantha et T. laticollis présentent le même modèle ultrastructural avec quelques spécificités dans chaque cas, notamment dans la disposition des structures aux extrémités postérieures du spermatozoïde. Cette étude confirme que les caractères ultrastructuraux du spermatozoïde mûrs sont des outils utiles pour l’analyse phylogénétique des Digenea.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Mise en évidence des polysaccharides sur coupes fines en microscopie électronique

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            Spermatozoa as phylogenetic characters for the Eucestoda.

            Spermatozoon ultrastructure and spermiogenesis are significant characters for phylogenetic inference. Sperm ultrastructure is reviewed from the literature in 56 species of Eucestoda. Data are available for 11 of the 12 orders of Eucestoda (Lecanicephalidea excepted), but in some orders data are scarce and often limited to a single species. Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure in the Eucestoda is compared to that of other parasitic Platyhelminthes, with emphasis on structures of phylogenetic interest. Not only the descriptions of sperm structure, but those of the process of spermiogenesis, are necessary to define characters. Synapomorphies based on sperm ultrastructure for the Eucestoda include the absence of a mitochondrion in mature sperm and the presence of a crested body. A proposed synapomorphy for the Cyclophyllidea + Tetrabothriidea is the twisting of the peripheral microtubules; the absence of intercentriolar body and the absence of striated roots in the spermatid may constitute additional synapomorphies for this assemblage. Absence of flagellar rotation during spermiogenesis is synapomorphic for the Cyclophyllidea, and absence of proximodistal fusion could be synapomorphic for a part of the Cyclophyllidea. Several other characters could be useful for understanding phylogeny within the Eucestoda. The polarity of these characters could in several cases be determined, but diagnoses for taxa or relationships based on synapomorphies cannot be specified unequivocally due to putative convergence. Such characters and their putative polarity include: (1) the number of axonemes in mature spermatozoon (plesiomorphic=2; apomorphic=1); (2) size and number of crested bodies (p=1; a=several); and (3) angle of twisted microtubules; shape of nucleus (p=compact cord; a=crescent and annulus). Additional apomorphic attributes include (1) presence of a periaxonemal sheath (a putative synapomorphy for the Cyclophyllidea + Tetrabothriidea if reversals are postulated in certain cyclophyllideans); (2) presence of proteinaceous transverse walls; (3) presence of dense granules; and (4) shape of apical cones and posterior structures. Studies of sperm structure in the poorly known orders and additional comparative studies in the Cyclophyllidea are expected to provide new information for elucidation of phylogenetic relationships.
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              Spermatozoa of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Eucestoda): advances in ultrastructural and phylogenetic studies.

              New data on spermiogenesis and the ultrastructure of spermatozoa of 'true' tapeworms (Eucestoda) are summarized. Since 2001, more than 50 species belonging to most orders of the Eucestoda have been studied or reinvestigated, particularly members of the Caryophyllidea, Spathebothriidea, Diphyllobothriidea, Bothriocephalidea, Trypanorhyncha, Tetraphyllidea, Proteocephalidea, and Cyclophyllidea. A new classification of spermatozoa of eucestodes into seven basic types is proposed and a key to their identification is given. For the first time, a phylogenetic tree inferred from spermatological characters is provided. New information obtained in the last decade has made it possible to fill numerous gaps in the character data matrix, enabling us to carry out a more reliable analysis of the evolution of ultrastructural characters of sperm and spermiogenesis in eucestodes. The tree is broadly congruent with those based on morphological and molecular data, indicating that convergent evolution of sperm characters in cestodes may not be as common as in other invertebrate taxa. The main gaps in the current knowledge of spermatological characters are mapped and topics for future research are outlined, with special emphasis on those characters that might provide additional information about the evolution of tapeworms and their spermatozoa. Future studies should be focused on representatives of those major groups (families and orders) in which molecular data indicate paraphyly or polyphyly (e.g. 'Tetraphyllidea' and Trypanorhyncha) and on those that have a key phylogenetic position among eucestodes (e.g. Diphyllidea, 'Tetraphyllidea', Lecanicephalidea, Nippotaeniidea).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2020
                27 November 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Management of Ecosystems, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar BP 5055 Dakar Senegal
                [2 ] UMR 6134 SPE, CNRS – Università di Corsica, Campus Grimaldi 20250 Corte Corsica France
                [3 ] Institut Systématique Évolution Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Université des Antilles 57 rue Cuvier, CP 51 75231 Paris Cedex 05 France
                [4 ] Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum Cromwell Road SW7 5BD London United Kingdom
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: quilichini_y@ 123456univ-corse.fr
                Article
                parasite200105 10.1051/parasite/2020066
                10.1051/parasite/2020066
                7708231
                33258443
                © P.I. Ndiaye et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Article

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