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      Improvement of skin condition in striae distensae: development, characterization and clinical efficacy of a cosmetic product containing Punica granatum seed oil and Croton lechleri resin extract

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          Abstract

          Striae distensae are a frequent skin condition associated with pregnancy, weight change or lack of skin elasticity. The aim of this research was to obtain a topical product containing herbal active ingredients with documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity ( Punica granatum seed oil and Croton lechleri resin extract) and demonstrate its positive effect on prevention and treatment of striae distensae. First, the cream base formulation was optimized through experimental design. Secondly, the cream containing the two active ingredients was investigated in an interventional nonrandomized clinical trial. The clinical outcome was assessed through biophysical parameters and ultrasonographic evaluation. The state of the skin was evaluated by biophysical measurements and ultrasonography at the beginning of the study and after 3 and 6 weeks. The experimental design was successfully used to set the best ranges for the technological and formulation factors to obtain a cosmetic formulation with optimal characteristics. The study of clinical efficacy on the optimal formulation revealed an increase in the dermis thickness, hydration and elasticity values in both groups after 6 weeks of cream application. The new oil-in-water cream containing P. granatum seed oil and C. lechleri resin extract can be helpful in the prevention or improving of skin changes associated with striae.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Adverse effects of topical glucocorticosteroids.

          Topical corticosteroids were introduced into medicine about 50 years ago. They represent a significant milestone in dermatologic therapy. Despite encouragement to report observed adverse drug reactions, the clinical practice of reporting is poor and incomplete. Likewise, adverse effects and safety of topical corticosteroids are neglected in the medical literature. The authors provide an updated review of their adverse-effect profile. Children are more prone to the development of systemic reactions to topically applied medication because of their higher ratio of total body surface area to body weight. Cutaneous adverse effects occur regularly with prolonged treatment and are dependent on the chemical nature of the drug, the vehicle, and the location of its application. The most frequent adverse effects include atrophy, striae, rosacea, perioral dermatitis, acne, and purpura. Those that occur with lower frequency include hypertrichosis, pigmentation alterations, delayed wound healing, and exacerbation of skin infections. Of particular interest is the rate of contact sensitization against corticosteroids, which is considerably higher than generally believed. Systemic reactions such as hyperglycemia, glaucoma, and adrenal insufficiency have also been reported to follow topical application. The authors provide an updated review of local and systemic adverse effects upon administration of topical corticosteroids, including the latest FDA report on the safety of such steroids in children. At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be familiar with topical corticosteroids and their proper use.
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            Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models.

            Antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels and seeds using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were screened for their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as beta-carotene-linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) model systems. The methanol extract of peels showed 83 and 81% antioxidant activity at 50 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. Similarly, the methanol extract of seeds showed 22.6 and 23.2% antioxidant activity at 100 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. As the methanol extract of pomegranate peel showed the highest antioxidant activity among all of the extracts, it was selected for testing of its effect on lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The methanol extract showed 56, 58, and 93.7% inhibition using the thiobarbituric acid method, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and LDL oxidation, respectively, at 100 ppm. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from pomegranate peel and seeds. Owing to this property, the studies can be further extended to exploit them for their possible application for the preservation of food products as well as their use as health supplements and neutraceuticals.
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              Obesity and the skin: skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity.

              Obesity is widely recognized as an epidemic in the Western world; however, the impact of obesity on the skin has received minimal attention. The purpose of this article is to highlight the association between obesity and dermatologic conditions. We review the impact of obesity on the skin, including skin physiology, skin manifestations of obesity, and dermatologic diseases aggravated by obesity. Obesity is responsible for changes in skin barrier function, sebaceous glands and sebum production, sweat glands, lymphatics, collagen structure and function, wound healing, microcirculation and macrocirculation, and subcutaneous fat. Moreover, obesity is implicated in a wide spectrum of dermatologic diseases, including acanthosis nigricans, acrochordons, keratosis pilaris, hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, striae distensae, adiposis dolorosa, and fat redistribution, lymphedema, chronic venous insufficiency, plantar hyperkeratosis, cellulitis, skin infections, hidradenitis suppurativa, psoriasis, insulin resistance syndrome, and tophaceous gout. We review the clinical features, evidence for association with obesity, and management of these various dermatoses and highlight the profound impact of obesity in clinical dermatology. After completing this learning activity, participants should be aware of obesity-associated changes in skin physiology, skin manifestations of obesity, and dermatologic diseases aggravated by obesity, and be able to formulate a pathophysiology-based treatment strategy for obesity-associated dermatoses.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                24 February 2017
                : 11
                : 521-531
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Dermatopharmacy and Cosmetics
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Haţieganu, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sonia Iurian, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Haţieganu, 41 V Babeş Street, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Tel +40 745 629 083, Email iuriansonia@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                dddt-11-521
                10.2147/DDDT.S128470
                5338857
                © 2017 Bogdan et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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