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      Diagnóstico da Leishmaniose Visceral Canina pelas técnicas de imunoistoquímica e PCR em tecidos cutâneos em associação com a RIFI e ELISA-teste Translated title: Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis diagnosis by immunohistochemistry and PCR in skin tissues in association with RIFI and ELISA-test

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          Abstract

          O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as técnicas de imunoistoquímica (IMIQ) e de PCR (Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase) em tecidos cutâneos para o diagnóstico da Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) e compará-los com os exames parasitológicos em tecidos corados histoquimicamente (hematoxilina-eosina, HE) e com testes sorológicos, como a Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI) e ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA). Dos 34 cães naturalmente infectados, classificados em assintomáticos, oligossintomáticos e polissintomáticos, foram coletadas amostras de pele sadia ou com lesão para a realização da IMIQ, HE e PCR. Não somente peles lesionadas (56,5%), mas também sadias (31,8%) encontravam-se positivas pela IMIQ, confirmadas posteriormente pela PCR em 97,8% das amostras. No grupo assintomático, 87,5% estavam negativos pelos testes sorológicos, mas positivos em 50% dos casos pela IMIQ e 100% pela PCR. Entre os oligossintomáticos, 100%, 85,7% e 28,6% encontravam-se positivos, respectivamente, pela PCR, sorologia e IMIQ. Os cães polissintomáticos eram 91,7% soropositivos e tinham parasitas na pele. Em geral, a técnica PCR teve maior positividade (100%). A eficiência dos testes variou de acordo com a evolução da doença, demonstrando a necessidade da associação de técnicas, usando-se IMIQ para confirmação da sorologia e a PCR apenas nos casos suspeitos após a IMIQ. Dessa forma, pode-se aumentar os níveis de positividade e contribuir para o controle desta zoonose.

          Translated abstract

          The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the immunohistochemistry (IMHC) and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) tests for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis and compare the results with serological tests such as the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), ELISA and a parasitological test (microscopic direct examination of the parasite stained with haematoxylin and eosin - HE). For this study, samples of healthy or lesion skin tissues were obtained from 34 CVL naturally infected dogs classified in three groups: asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polisymptomatic. Not only lesion (56.5%) but also healthy skins (31.8%) were positives by IMHC and confirmed by PCR in 97.8% of skin samples. In asymptomatic group, 87.5% dogs were negatives by serological tests, but positives by IMHC in 50% and by PCR in 100%. In oligosymptomatic group, 100%, 85.7% and 28.6% of dogs were positives, respectively by PCR, serological and IMHC tests. In addition, 91.7% of polisymptomatic dogs were serum positive and had intact parasites in the skin. In general, PCR showed higher positivity (100%). The efficiency of each test varied with the evolution of the disease. IMHC may be used to confirm the results of the serology and PCR in inconclusive cases after HE and IMHC. The association of techniques proposed in this study may increase the positivity and contributed to the control of this canine disease.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Infectiousness in a cohort of brazilian dogs: why culling fails to control visceral leishmaniasis in areas of high transmission.

          The elimination of seropositive dogs in Brazil has been used to control zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis but with little success. To elucidate the reasons for this, the infectiousness of 50 sentinel dogs exposed to natural Leishmania chagasi infection was assessed through time by xenodiagnosis with the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Eighteen (43%) of 42 infected dogs became infectious after a median of 333 days in the field (105 days after seroconversion). Seven highly infectious dogs (17%) accounted for >80% of sandfly infections. There were positive correlations between infectiousness and anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G, parasite detection by polymerase chain reaction, and clinical disease (logistic regression, r2=0.08-0.18). The sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect currently infectious dogs was high (96%) but lower in the latent period (<63%), and specificity was low (24%). Mathematical modeling suggests that culling programs fail because of high incidence of infection and infectiousness, the insensitivity of the diagnostic test to detect infectious dogs, and time delays between diagnosis and culling.
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            A retrospective clinical study of canine leishmaniasis in 150 dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum.

            The clinical and laboratory findings observed in 150 dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum, from a large endemic area of southern Italy, are described. There was a gradual onset of clinical signs and the course of the disease was progressive in almost all the cases. The majority of the dogs were mongrels (43.3 per cent), male (64.7 per cent), of medium size (50.6 per cent), three to seven years old (64.7 per cent), and living outdoors (60 per cent). They showed generalised (56.7 per cent) or symmetrical (32 per cent) lymphadenomegaly; the mucous membranes of 87 of the dogs (58 per cent) were pale and moderate or severe splenomegaly was diagnosed in 80 dogs (53.3 per cent); weight loss was observed in 32 per cent of the animals. Skin abnormalities were very common, and included dry exfoliative dermatitis (56 per cent), ulcers (40 per cent) periorbital alopecia ('lunettes') (18 per cent), diffuse alopecia (14 per cent) and onychogryphosis (24 per cent). Ocular signs were observed in 24 dogs (16 per cent) including 16 cases of keratoconjunctivitis (three with keratoconjunctivitis sicca), six cases of moderate uveitis and two cases of panophthalmitis. The acute form of the disease was diagnosed in only six dogs and was characterised by fever and generalised lymphadenomegaly, and by the absence of skin lesions. Another six dogs had severe renal failure without systemic clinical signs of leishmaniasis. The most important laboratory findings were a severe or moderate increase in gammaglobulins, hypoalbuminaemia, hyperproteinemia and anaemia. Cultures or cytology tests for L infantum parasites were positive in 134 of the dogs. Following the standard procedures developed for human lymph node and bone marrow cytology tests, the leishmania density in the dogs varied from 1+ to 2+. Leishmania antibody titres were high (> 1:160) in almost all the dogs. Immunological tests for autoantibodies were positive in 25 of 53 dogs tested in the antinuclear antibody (ANA) test, in 15 of 43 dogs tested in the latex test and in five of 24 dogs tested in the Coombs test.
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              Parasite density and impaired biochemical/hematological status are associated with severe clinical aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

              We have performed a detailed investigation in 40 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi), subdivided into three groups: asymptomatic (AD = 12), oligosymptomatic (OD = 12) and symptomatic (SD = 16), based on their clinical features. Twenty non-infected dogs (CD) were included as control group. Serological analysis, performed by IFAT and ELISA, demonstrated higher antibodies titers in SD in comparison to the AD. A positive correlation was found between parasite density in the spleen and skin smears as well as the bone marrow parasitism with clinical status of the infection. We observed that the progression of the disease from asymptomatic to symptomatic clinical form was accompanied by intense parasitism in the bone marrow. It is likely that this led to the impaired biochemical/hematological status observed. Finally, we believe that the follow-up of these parameters could be a relevant approach to be used as markers during therapeutic and vaccine evaluations.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbpv
                Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária
                Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet.
                Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária (Jaboticabal )
                1984-2961
                March 2010
                : 19
                : 1
                : 32-38
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
                Article
                S1984-29612010000100007
                10.1590/S1984-29612010000100007

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                PARASITOLOGY
                VETERINARY SCIENCES

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