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      Serum Ratio of Heart-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein to Myoglobin

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          Background: The concentration of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (hFABP), a promising novel marker for detection of acute or persistent myocardial damage, is significantly influenced by renal clearance and thus has limitations to its usefulness in patients with renal dysfunction. We evaluated whether the serum ratio of hFABP to myoglobin (F/M) might be a useful marker for assessing cardiac damage in hemodialysis patients. Methods: Serum hFABP and myoglobin were measured, and the value of F/M was calculated in 21 hemodialysis patients. Cardiac markers (cardiac troponin T [cTnT], atrial natriuretic peptide [ANP], and brain natriuretic peptide [BNP]) and echocardiographic indices (left ventricular end-diastolic dimension [LVDd], left ventricular mass index [LVMI], and inferior vena cava [IVC] dimension) were examined and compared with hFABP, myoglobin, and F/M ratios. Results: Serum hFABP and myoglobin levels were significantly elevated in hemodialysis patients and reduced by 30–40% during hemodialysis. The value of F/M after hemodialysis, but not the concentration of hFABP or myoglobin, had significant linear correlations with ANP, BNP, cTnT, LVDd, LVMI, and IVC. Conclusion: The value of F/M after hemodialysis, but not the concentration of hFABP itself, might be a newly useful marker for estimation of cardiac damage and volume overload in hemodialysis patients.

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          Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy: comparison to necropsy findings.

          To determine the accuracy of echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) dimension and mass measurements for detection and quantification of LV hypertrophy, results of blindly read antemortem echocardiograms were compared with LV mass measurements made at necropsy in 55 patients. LV mass was calculated using M-mode LV measurements by Penn and American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) conventions and cube function and volume correction formulas in 52 patients. Penn-cube LV mass correlated closely with necropsy LV mass (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) and overestimated it by only 6%; sensitivity in 18 patients with LV hypertrophy (necropsy LV mass more than 215 g) was 100% (18 of 18 patients) and specificity was 86% (29 of 34 patients). ASE-cube LV mass correlated similarly to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.90, p less than 0.001), but systematically overestimated it (by a mean of 25%); the overestimation could be corrected by the equation: LV mass = 0.80 (ASE-cube LV mass) + 0.6 g. Use of ASE measurements in the volume correction formula systematically underestimated necropsy LV mass (by a mean of 30%). In a subset of 9 patients, 3 of whom had technically inadequate M-mode echocardiograms, 2-dimensional echocardiographic (echo) LV mass by 2 methods was also significantly related to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.68, p less than 0.05 and r = 0.82, p less than 0.01). Among other indexes of LV anatomy, only measurement of myocardial cross-sectional area was acceptably accurate for quantitation of LV mass (r = 0.80, p less than 0.001) or diagnosis of LV hypertrophy (sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 94%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Development of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of human heart type fatty acid-binding protein in plasma and urine by using two different monoclonal antibodies specific for human heart fatty acid-binding protein.

            We have developed a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of human heart type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) in human plasma and urine using the combination of two distinct monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against human H-FABP purified from human heart muscle. The total assay time of the ELISA is practically much shorter than that of the competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) we previously reported. The immunoreactive mass of human H-FABP was specifically measured using a horseradish peroxidase (HRPO)-labeled anti-human H-FABP MAb as an enzyme-linked MAb, and anti-human H-FABP MAb immobilized on the polystyrene microtiter plate as a solid-phase MAb, and purified human H-FABP as standard materials. The assay range of the ELISA was 0-250 ng/ml of plasma and urine. The ELISA yielded a coefficient of variation of less than 10% in inter- and intra-assays, and the good linearity was obtained in dilution test using clinical samples. Anticoagulants, except sodium fluoride and a high concentration of hemoglobin and bilirubin, did not interfere with the assay of plasma samples. A high concentration of hemoglobin, bilirubin and immunoglobulin, and contamination with seminal plasma did not interfere with the assay of urine samples. The average recovery of purified human H-FABP added to human plasma and urine samples was 98.5% and 97.0%, respectively. Myoglobin and myosin did not crossreact in the ELISA. The minimum detection limit of the ELISA was 1.25 ng/ml. The immunoreactive masses of human H-FABP in plasma and urine samples, obtained from one hundred normal healthy subjects were quantified by the sandwich ELISA. The normal mean (+/- SD) level of human H-FABP mass in plasma was 3.65 +/- 1.81 ng/ml, and that in urine was 3.20 +/- 2.70 ng/ml. In conclusion, this sandwich ELISA is a useful tool for the sensitive and precise determination of human H-FABP in human plasma and urine, and it may be used specifically for clinical investigation and diagnosis of myocardial injury.
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              The Troponins

               Laura Coudrey (1998)

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                February 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 93
                : 2
                : c69-c74
                Second Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
                68520 Nephron Clin Pract 2003;93:c69–c74
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 31, Pages: 1
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