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      Acute Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis in the Northern Territory of Australia: A Review of Data from 2009 to 2016 and Comparison with the Literature

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          Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is an inflammatory kidney disease following infection with nephritogenic strains of Group A Streptococcus. In 1991, APSGN became notifiable in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia with cases recorded on the NT Notifiable Disease Database (NTNDS). The case definition of a confirmed case requires laboratory definitive evidence or laboratory suggestive evidence in conjunction with a clinically compatible illness. Probable cases require clinical evidence only. Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis notifications from 2009 to 2016 were extracted from the NTNDS. Of the 322 cases, 261 were confirmed and 61 probable. The majority, 304 (94%), were Aboriginal and the median age was 8 years (range: 0–62 years). Incidence for confirmed cases was 13.8/100,000 person-years, with inclusion of probable cases increasing incidence to 17.0/100,000 person-years. Highest incidence of confirmed cases was in Aboriginal children less than 15 years of age at 124.0 cases/100,000 person-years. The rate ratio of confirmed cases in Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal Australians was 18.9 (95% confidence interval: 11.4–33.6). Recent trends show a consistently high number of notifications annually with less frequent outbreaks. The Aboriginal population of the NT continues to have high rates of APSGN with recent trends showing higher rates than previously reported. Sustained preventative efforts and continued surveillance strategies are needed.

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          The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases.

          The global burden of disease caused by group A streptococcus (GAS) is not known. We review recent population-based data to estimate the burden of GAS diseases and highlight deficiencies in the available data. We estimate that there are at least 517,000 deaths each year due to severe GAS diseases (eg, acute rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, and invasive infections). The prevalence of severe GAS disease is at least 18.1 million cases, with 1.78 million new cases each year. The greatest burden is due to rheumatic heart disease, with a prevalence of at least 15.6 million cases, with 282,000 new cases and 233,000 deaths each year. The burden of invasive GAS diseases is unexpectedly high, with at least 663,000 new cases and 163,000 deaths each year. In addition, there are more than 111 million prevalent cases of GAS pyoderma, and over 616 million incident cases per year of GAS pharyngitis. Epidemiological data from developing countries for most diseases is poor. On a global scale, GAS is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. These data emphasise the need to reinforce current control strategies, develop new primary prevention strategies, and collect better data from developing countries.
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            Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is a strong risk factor for chronic kidney disease in later life.

            Although unusual in western countries and in Australia in general, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is still common in Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Here, we evaluated whether episodes of acute PSGN increased the risk for chronic kidney disease in later life in 1519 residents of a remote Aboriginal community (85% of those age eligible), with high rates of renal and cardiovascular disease, who participated in a health screen over a 3-year period. Of these, 200 had had at least one episode of PSGN, with 27 having had multiple episodes, usually in childhood. High levels of albuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio) with increasing age were confirmed. All PSGN episodes were associated with group A streptococcal skin infections, often related to scabies. In both genders, aged 10-39 years at screening, about one in five had such a history. Among them, PSGN (5 years or more earlier) was significantly associated with higher levels of albuminuria than those without. In women, aged 30-39 years, a history of PSGN was associated with a significantly higher frequency of estimated glomerular filtration rates <60 ml/min. The adjusted odds ratios for an albumin/creatinine ratio over 34 g/mol (overt albuminuria) in males and females with a history of PSGN were 4.6 and 3.1, respectively, compared with those without a history. Thus, PSGN contributes to the very serious burden of chronic kidney disease in this community. Rigorous strategies to prevent scabies and Group A streptococcal infections will reduce this burden.
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              Impact of an Ivermectin Mass Drug Administration on Scabies Prevalence in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community

              Background Scabies is endemic in many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, with 69% of infants infected in the first year of life. We report the outcomes against scabies of two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Methods Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured scabies prevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined disease acquisition and treatment failures. Scabies infestations were diagnosed clinically with additional laboratory investigations for crusted scabies. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 2–3 weeks if scabies was diagnosed, others followed a standard alternative algorithm. Principal Findings We saw >1000 participants at each population census. Scabies prevalence fell from 4% at baseline to 1% at month 6. Prevalence rose to 9% at month 12 amongst the baseline cohort in association with an identified exposure to a presumptive crusted scabies case with a higher prevalence of 14% amongst new entries to the cohort. At month 18, scabies prevalence fell to 2%. Scabies acquisitions six months after each MDA were 1% and 2% whilst treatment failures were 6% and 5% respectively. Conclusion Scabies prevalence reduced in the six months after each MDA with a low risk of acquisition (1–2%). However, in a setting where living conditions are conducive to high scabies transmissibility, exposure to presumptive crusted scabies and population mobility, a sustained reduction in prevalence was not achieved. Clinical Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Register (ACTRN—12609000654257).

                Author and article information

                Am J Trop Med Hyg
                Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg
                The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
                The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
                December 2018
                05 November 2018
                05 November 2018
                : 99
                : 6
                : 1643-1648
                [1 ]Department of Paediatrics, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Australia;
                [2 ]Department of Health, Centre for Disease Control, Darwin, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Address correspondence to Vicki Krause, Department of Health, Centre for Disease Control, Ground Floor, Building 4, Royal Darwin Hospital, Rocklands Drive Tiwi, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0810, Australia. E-mail: vicki.krause@

                Authors’ addresses: Swasti Chaturvedi, Department of Paediatrics, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Australia, E-mail: swasti.chaturvedi@ . Rowena Boyd and Vicki Krause, Department of Health, Centre for Disease Control, Darwin, Australia, E-mails: rowena.boyd@ and vicki.krause@ .

                © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 6

                Infectious disease & Microbiology


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