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      Occurrence of aflatoxin producingAspergillus flavusisolates in maize kernel in Hungary

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          How will climate change affect mycotoxins in food?

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            The toxicology of aflatoxins as a basis for public health decisions.

            Aflatoxins have been extensively studied with respect to their mechanisms of toxicity. An understanding of metabolism, DNA adduct induction, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity has been paralleled by the development of biomarkers of aflatoxin exposure and biological effects (e.g. mutations) applied to human populations. The improvements in exposure assessment and their application in prospective epidemiological studies and the demonstration of a specific mutation in the TP53 gene in hepatocellular carcinomas from areas of high aflatoxin exposure have contributed significantly to the classification of aflatoxins as human carcinogens. In addition to establishing the carcinogenicity of aflatoxins in humans, understanding molecular mechanisms of action has provided the scientific rationale for prevention strategies, including primary and chemoprevention approaches. Overall, integrated, multidisciplinary research on aflatoxins has provided the platform on which to base decisions regarding acceptable exposures and priorities for interventions to reduce human risk in a public health context.
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              Climate change and food safety: an emerging issue with special focus on Europe.

              According to general consensus, the global climate is changing, which may also affect agricultural and livestock production. The potential impact of climate change on food security is a widely debated and investigated issue. Nonetheless, the specific impact on safety of food and feed for consumers has remained a less studied topic. This review therefore identifies the various food safety issues that are likely to be affected by changes in climate, particularly in Europe. Amongst the issues identified are mycotoxins formed on plant products in the field or during storage; residues of pesticides in plant products affected by changes in pest pressure; trace elements and/or heavy metals in plant products depending on changes in their abundance and availability in soils; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foods following changes in long-range atmospheric transport and deposition into the environment; marine biotoxins in seafood following production of phycotoxins by harmful algal blooms; and the presence of pathogenic bacteria in foods following more frequent extreme weather conditions, such as flooding and heat waves. Research topics that are amenable to further research are highlighted.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Acta Alimentaria
                Acta Alimentaria
                Akademiai Kiado Zrt.
                0139-3006
                1588-2535
                September 2013
                September 2013
                : 42
                : 3
                : 451-459
                Article
                10.1556/AAlim.42.2013.3.18
                © 2013

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