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      Taguatagua 3: A new late Pleistocene settlement in a highly suitable lacustrine habitat in central Chile (34°S)

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          Abstract

          We present the results of the excavations and analyses of the diverse and exceptional archaeological assemblage of Taguatagua 3, a new late Pleistocene site located in the ancient Tagua Tagua lake in Central Chile (34°S). The anthropogenic context is constrained in a coherently dated stratigraphic deposit which adds new information about the mobility, subsistence strategies, and settlement of the early hunter-gatherers of southern South America. The age model constructed, as well as radiocarbon dates obtained directly from a combustion structure, indicate that the human occupation occurred over a brief time span around 12,440–12,550 cal yr BP. Considering taphonomic, geoarchaeological, lithic, archaeobotanical, and zooarchaeological evidence, as well as the spatial distribution combined with ethnographic data, we interpret Taguatagua 3 as a logistic and temporary camp associated mainly with gomphothere hunting and butchering. Nevertheless, several other activities were carried out here as well, such as hide and/or bone preparation, small vertebrate and plant processing and consumption, and red ochre grinding. Botanical and eggshell remains suggest that the anthropic occupation occurred during the dry season. Considering the contemporaneous sites recorded in the basin, we conclude that the ancient Tagua Tagua lake was a key location along the region’s early hunter-gatherer mobility circuits. In this context, it acted as a recurrent hunting/scavenging place during the Late Pleistocene due to its abundant, diverse, and predictable resources.

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          Raman microspectroscopy of some iron oxides and oxyhydroxides

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            The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana.

            Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 (14)C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 (14)C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual.
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              Terminal Pleistocene Alaskan genome reveals first founding population of Native Americans

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ValidationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                PLOS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                22 May 2024
                2024
                : 19
                : 5
                : e0302465
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Escuela de Antropología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
                [2 ] Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química Ambiental, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile
                [3 ] Formación Geológica SpA, Chimbarongo, Chile
                [4 ] Sociedad Chilena de Arqueología, Santiago, Chile
                [5 ] Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina
                [6 ] Independent Researcher, Santiago, Chile
                [7 ] Department of Prehistory, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), Bellaterra, Spain
                [8 ] Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social (IPHES-CERCA), Tarragona, Spain
                [9 ] Instituto de Ciencias de la Ingeniería, Universidad de O`Higgins, Rancagua, Chile
                [10 ] Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
                [11 ] Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Departamento de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Tarapacá, Iquique, Chile
                [12 ] Facultad de Ciencias, Laboratorio de Ontogenia y Filogenia, Red Paleontológica U-Chile, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
                [13 ] Unidad de Patrimonio Paleontológico, Consejo de Monumentos Nacionales, Santiago, Chile
                University of Michigan, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5791-5522
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9040-381X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8443-0136
                Article
                PONE-D-23-35470
                10.1371/journal.pone.0302465
                11111044
                38776357
                aa9f7e27-2d2f-4331-ae33-379b51feb298
                © 2024 Labarca et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 28 October 2023
                : 3 April 2024
                Page count
                Figures: 11, Tables: 2, Pages: 36
                Funding
                Funded by: ANID-FONDECYT
                Award ID: 11170919
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100015681, Fundación Palarq;
                Award ID: Ayuda 2020-2022
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: ANID-FONDECYT
                Award ID: 11220930
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Municipalidad de San Vicente
                Award ID: 2019-2022
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: ANID-FONDECYT
                Award ID: 1230860
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: ANID-FONDEQUIP
                Award ID: EQM150101
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: ANID-FONDEQUIP
                Award ID: EQM150020
                Award Recipient :
                "This research was funded by ANID-FONDECYT Grants 11170919, 11220930, 1230860, Fundación Palarq Grant 2020-2022 and the Ilustre Municipalidad de San Vicente. Additional support was provided by FONDEQUIP EQM150101 (SEM-EDX) and FONDEQUIP EQM150020 (Confocal microscopy/RAMAN/AFM spectroscopy). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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