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      S-nitrosogluthathione reductase activity of amphioxus ADH3: insights into the nitric oxide metabolism

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          Nitric oxide (NO) is a signalling molecule involved in many physiological functions. An important via of NO action is through the S-nitrosylation of proteins, a post-translational modification that regulates the activity of enzymes, protein-protein interactions and signal transduction pathways. Alcohol dehydrogenase class III (ADH3) recognises S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), the main reservoir of non-protein S-nitrosothiol, and functions as an effective GSNO reductase (GSNOR) and as a safeguard against nitrosative stress. To investigate the evolutionary conservation of this metabolic role, we have produced recombinant Branchiostoma floridae ADH3. Pure preparations of ADH3 showed 2-fold higher activity as GSNOR than as formaldehyde dehydrogenase, the previously assumed main role for ADH3. To correlate ADH3 expression in the gut with areas of NO production, we analysed the tissue distribution of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme in amphioxus larvae. Immunostaining of the NOS enzyme revealed expression in the gut and in the dorsal region of the club-shaped gland. Co-localization in the gut supports the ADH3 and NOS joint contribution to the NO/SNO homeostasis.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Identification of nitric oxide synthase as a protective locus against tuberculosis.

          Mutagenesis of the host immune system has helped identify response pathways necessary to combat tuberculosis. Several such pathways may function as activators of a common protective gene: inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Here we provide direct evidence for this gene controlling primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection using mice homozygous for a disrupted NOS2 allele. NOS2(-/-) mice proved highly susceptible, resembling wild-type littermates immunosuppressed by high-dose glucocorticoids, and allowed Mycobacterium tuberculosis to replicate faster in the lungs than reported for other gene-deficient hosts. Susceptibility appeared to be independent of the only known naturally inherited antimicrobial locus, NRAMP1. Progression of chronic tuberculosis in wild-type mice was accelerated by specifically inhibiting NOS2 via administration of N6-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine. Together these findings identify NOS2 as a critical host gene for tuberculostasis.
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            Nitrosylation. the prototypic redox-based signaling mechanism.

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              Nitric oxide contributes to induction of innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila.

              Studies in mammals uncovered important signaling roles of nitric oxide (NO), and contributions to innate immunity. Suggestions of conservation led us to explore the involvement of NO in Drosophila innate immunity. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) increased larval sensitivity to gram-negative bacterial infection, and abrogated induction of the antimicrobial peptide Diptericin. NOS was up-regulated after infection. Antimicrobial peptide reporters revealed that NO triggered an immune response in uninfected larvae. NO induction of Diptericin reporters in the fat body required immune deficiency (imd) and domino. These findings show that NOS activity is required for a robust innate immune response to gram-negative bacteria, NOS is induced by infection, and NO is sufficient to trigger response in the absence of infection. We propose that NO mediates an early step of the signal transduction pathway, inducing the innate immune response upon natural infection with gram-negative bacteria.

                Author and article information

                Int J Biol Sci
                International Journal of Biological Sciences
                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                5 May 2006
                : 2
                : 3
                : 117-124
                Departament de Genètica. Facultat de Biologia. Universitat de Barcelona. 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
                Author notes
                Corresponding address: Ricard Albalat, Departament de Genètica, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona. Av. Diagonal, 645. 08028 Barcelona, Spain. Tel.: +34.934029009; Fax: +34.934034420; E-mail: ralbalat@ 123456ub.edu

                Conflict of interest: The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.

                © Ivyspring International Publisher. This is an open access article. Reproduction is permitted for personal and noncommerical use, provided that the article is in whole, unmodified, and properly cited.
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