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      The Bronchiectasis in COPD-OSA Overlap Syndrome Patients

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          COPD-OSA (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease–obstructive sleep apnea) overlap syndrome is associated with more frequent COPD acute exacerbations than COPD without OSA. With the application of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in COPD, bronchiectasis is commonly detected and is associated with disease severity. Sleep respiratory disease is also associated with bronchiectasis; however, the correlation between OSA and coexisted bronchiectasis in COPD (COPD-Bx) has not been reported yet.

          Patients and Methods

          A total of 124 consecutive patients with stable COPD were enrolled. All subjects completed the chest HRCT and nocturnal polysomnography (PSG). The scores of extent and severity in bronchiectasis were assessed based on the Smith method and the Bhalla scoring system. Clinical data, questionnaire, routine blood test data, blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and Immunoglobulin E, and the lymphocyte subtype were collected.

          Results

          Among all enrolled patients, 56.45% (70/124) were diagnosed as COPD-OSA based on the results of PSG screening. Bronchiectasis was detected in 42.86% (30/70) of the patients with COPD-OSA, but in 18.52% (10/54) of the patients without OSA (χ2=8.264, p=0.004). PSG screening revealed that COPD with OSA had a significantly higher apnea-hypopnea index and percent of time spent with oxygen saturation below 90% (T90). Higher values of CRP, T90, and lower CD4/CD8 in the COPD-Bx with OSA were detected compared to COPD-Bx without OSA. Correlation analysis showed that the Bhalla severity score was related to CD8 cell count (r=0.446, p<0.05) and CD4/CD8 (r=−0.357, p<0.05) in all the COPD-Bx patients. The Smith extent score was also associated with the values of CD8 count (r=0.388, p<0.05) and CD4/CD8 (r=−0.381, p<0.05).

          Conclusion

          The comorbid bronchiectasis was more common in COPD-OSA overlap syndrome patient and may be related to more severe hypoxia and increased systemic inflammation.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: the overlap syndrome.

          Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (overlap syndrome) are more likely to develop pulmonary hypertension than patients with either condition alone. To assess the relation of overlap syndrome to mortality and first-time hospitalization because of COPD exacerbation and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on these major outcomes. We included 228 patients with overlap syndrome treated with CPAP, 213 patients with overlap syndrome not treated with CPAP, and 210 patients with COPD without OSA. All were free of heart failure, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Median follow-up was 9.4 years (range, 3.3-12.7). End points were all-cause mortality and first-time COPD exacerbation leading to hospitalization. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, comorbidities, severity of COPD, apnea-hypopnea index, and daytime sleepiness, patients with overlap syndrome not treated with CPAP had a higher mortality (relative risk, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.77) and were more likely to suffer a severe COPD exacerbation leading to hospitalization (relative risk, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.38) versus the COPD-only group. Patients with overlap syndrome treated with CPAP had no increased risk for either outcome compared with patients with COPD-only. The overlap syndrome is associated with an increased risk of death and hospitalization because of COPD exacerbation. CPAP treatment was associated with improved survival and decreased hospitalizations in patients with overlap syndrome.
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            Sleep and sleep-disordered breathing in adults with predominantly mild obstructive airway disease.

            Neither the association between obstructive airways disease (OAD) and sleep apnea-hypopnea (SAH) nor the sleep consequences of each disorder alone and together have been characterized in an adult community setting. Our primary aims were (1) to determine if there is an association between OAD and SAH and (2) identify predictors of oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep in persons having OAD with and without SAH. Polysomnography and spirometry results from 5,954 participants in the Sleep Heart Health Study were analyzed. OAD was defined by a FEV1/FVC value less than 70%. Assessment of SAH prevalence in OAD was performed using thresholds of respiratory disturbance index (RDI) greater than 10 and greater than 15. A total of 1,132 participants had OAD that was predominantly mild (FEV1/FVC 63.81 +/- 6.56%, mean +/- SD). SAH was not more prevalent in participants with OAD than in those without OAD (22.32 versus 28.86%, with and without OAD, respectively, at RDI threshold values greater than 10; and 13.97 versus 18.63%, with and without OAD, respectively, at RDI threshold value greater than 15). In the absence of SAH, the adjusted odds ratio for sleep desaturation (> 5% total sleep time with saturation < 90%) was greater than 1.9 when FEV1/FVC was less than 65%. Participants with both OAD and SAH had greater sleep perturbation and desaturation than those with one disorder. Generally mild OAD alone was associated with minimally altered sleep quality. We conclude that (1) there is no association between generally mild OAD and SAH; (2) exclusive of SAH and after adjusting for demographic factors and awake oxyhemoglobin saturation, an FEV1/FVC value less than 65% is associated with increased risk of sleep desaturation; (3) desaturation is greater in persons with both OAD and SAH compared with each of these alone; and (4) individuals with generally mild OAD and without SAH in the community have minimally perturbed sleep.
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              Association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep apnea syndrome.

              The association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), which are both frequent diseases, is likely to occur in a number of patients. We have prospectively investigated a large series (n = 265) of patients who were selected solely on the basis of a confirmed diagnosis of SAS (apnea + hypopnea index > 20/hr). An obstructive spirographic pattern, defined by an FEV1/VC ratio or = 45 mm Hg) was observed in 8 of 30 overlap patients and in 19 of 235 of the remainder. The pulmonary artery mean pressure (PAP) was higher in overlap patients both at rest (20 +/- 6 versus 15 +/- 5 mm Hg, p < 0.01) and during steady-state exercise (37 +/- 12 versus 29 +/- 10 mm Hg, p = 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                18 March 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 605-611
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital , Tianjin, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jie Cao Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital , Tianjin300052, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +8613682187319Fax +8602260361720 Email tjcaojie@sina.com
                Article
                243429
                10.2147/COPD.S243429
                7090178
                © 2020 Yang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 35, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

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