The present study was performed to investigate the association of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) genotypes with parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in hemodialysis patients. Subjects were 122 Japanese hemodialysis patients, including 39 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The CaSR polymorphisms tested were codon 990 in intracellular domain (A/A, A/G, and G/G groups) as well as T to C base change of intron 4 (T/T, T/C, and C/C groups). Statistical analysis of these polymorphisms revealed that the serum PTH level was significantly higher in the A/A group than in the G/G group in the former. In addition, the serum PTH level was also significantly higher in patients displaying C allele, as compared with the T/T group in the latter. This association of two polymorphisms with the serum PTH level was observed only in non-DM patients. Although two polymorphisms affected the PTH level independently, patients who possessed both genotypes (AAC+) had a markedly high level of PTH not only in the non-DM group but also in the DM group. The present findings indicate the possibility of the prediction for the extensive progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism through analyzing the CaSR polymorphisms in chronic hemodialysis patients.