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      Arthropod venom Hyaluronidases: biochemical properties and potential applications in medicine and biotechnology

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          Abstract

          Hyaluronidases are enzymes that mainly degrade hyaluronan, the major glycosaminoglycan of the interstitial matrix. They are involved in several pathological and physiological activities including fertilization, wound healing, embryogenesis, angiogenesis, diffusion of toxins and drugs, metastasis, pneumonia, sepsis, bacteremia, meningitis, inflammation and allergy, among others. Hyaluronidases are widely distributed in nature and the enzymes from mammalian spermatozoa, lysosomes and animal venoms belong to the subclass EC 3.2.1.35. To date, only five three-dimensional structures for arthropod venom hyaluronidases ( Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris) were determined. Additionally, there are four molecular models for hyaluronidases from Mesobuthus martensii, Polybia paulista and Tityus serrulatus venoms. These enzymes are employed as adjuvants to increase the absorption and dispersion of other drugs and have been used in various off-label clinical conditions to reduce tissue edema. Moreover, a PEGylated form of a recombinant human hyaluronidase is currently under clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer. This review focuses on the arthropod venom hyaluronidases and provides an overview of their biochemical properties, role in the envenoming, structure/activity relationship, and potential medical and biotechnological applications.

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          The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

          Anopheles gambiae is the principal vector of malaria, a disease that afflicts more than 500 million people and causes more than 1 million deaths each year. Tenfold shotgun sequence coverage was obtained from the PEST strain of A. gambiae and assembled into scaffolds that span 278 million base pairs. A total of 91% of the genome was organized in 303 scaffolds; the largest scaffold was 23.1 million base pairs. There was substantial genetic variation within this strain, and the apparent existence of two haplotypes of approximately equal frequency ("dual haplotypes") in a substantial fraction of the genome likely reflects the outbred nature of the PEST strain. The sequence produced a conservative inference of more than 400,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms that showed a markedly bimodal density distribution. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed strong evidence for about 14,000 protein-encoding transcripts. Prominent expansions in specific families of proteins likely involved in cell adhesion and immunity were noted. An expressed sequence tag analysis of genes regulated by blood feeding provided insights into the physiological adaptations of a hematophagous insect.
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            The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum.

            Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors, as well as P450 and other detoxification enzymes. Development in Tribolium is more representative of other insects than is Drosophila, a fact reflected in gene content and function. For example, Tribolium has retained more ancestral genes involved in cell-cell communication than Drosophila, some being expressed in the growth zone crucial for axial elongation in short-germ development. Systemic RNA interference in T. castaneum functions differently from that in Caenorhabditis elegans, but nevertheless offers similar power for the elucidation of gene function and identification of targets for selective insect control.
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              The monarch butterfly genome yields insights into long-distance migration.

              We present the draft 273 Mb genome of the migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and a set of 16,866 protein-coding genes. Orthology properties suggest that the Lepidoptera are the fastest evolving insect order yet examined. Compared to the silkmoth Bombyx mori, the monarch genome shares prominent similarity in orthology content, microsynteny, and protein family sizes. The monarch genome reveals a vertebrate-like opsin whose existence in insects is widespread; a full repertoire of molecular components for the monarch circadian clockwork; all members of the juvenile hormone biosynthetic pathway whose regulation shows unexpected sexual dimorphism; additional molecular signatures of oriented flight behavior; microRNAs that are differentially expressed between summer and migratory butterflies; monarch-specific expansions of chemoreceptors potentially important for long-distance migration; and a variant of the sodium/potassium pump that underlies a valuable chemical defense mechanism. The monarch genome enhances our ability to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of long-distance migration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                karla@fcfrp.usp.br
                gisele.wiezel@gmail.com
                fernandagamorim@gmail.com
                ecabraga@fcfrp.usp.br
                Journal
                J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis
                J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis
                The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
                BioMed Central (London )
                1678-9199
                22 October 2015
                22 October 2015
                2015
                : 21
                Affiliations
                Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14.040-903 Brazil
                Article
                42
                10.1186/s40409-015-0042-7
                4619011
                aab11a94-3b33-4640-bb7b-4f2021eaa2e6
                © Bordon et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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