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      The Lumbar Bone Mineral Density Is Affected by Long-Term Poor Metabolic Control in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes mellitus

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          Abstract

          Aim: To analyze whether bone mineral density (BMD) and bone resorption status are influenced by long-term metabolic control and duration of disease in adolescents with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Twenty-seven adolescents (age 13.1 ± 1.7 years, duration of diabetes 6.9 ± 3.0 years) were studied. The BMD, expressed as z score, was measured at the lumbar spine (L1–L4) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, while the urinary excretion of total deoxypiridinoline (Dpyd), a marker of bone resorption, was measured by immunoassay and was corrected by creatinine (Cr). Linear and multivariate correlations between lumbar BMD z score or Dpyd/Cr excretion and age and disease variables [short-term (Hb A<sub>1clatest</sub>) or long-term (Hb A<sub>1cwholeduration</sub>) metabolic control, duration, ‘diabetes impact index’ (mean Hb A<sub>1cwholeduration</sub> x duration of disease in months)] were sought. Results: In diabetic subjects the mean BMD z score was –0.44 ± (SD) 1.02 (95% CI: –0.03; –0.84), and the Dpyd/Cr excretion was not increased. A negative correlation was found between lumbar BMD z score and age (r –0.59; p = 0.001), duration (r –0.39; p = 0.04), and the diabetes impact index (r –0.4; p = 0.04). The Dpyd/Cr ratio correlated negatively with age (r –0.40; p = 0.04) and positively with height velocity (r 0.42; p = 0.04). By using multiple linear regression, age showed a significant inverse correlation with lumbar BMD z score (β = –0.39; p = 0.0005). A negative correlation was found between lumbar BMD z score and Hb A<sub>1cwholeduration</sub> (β = –0.40; p = 0.02) or diabetes impact index (β = –0.001; p = 0.01). Conclusions: Poor metabolic control may expose adolescents with long-standing type 1 diabetes to the risk of developing osteopenia in adult age. Optimization of metabolic control in growing diabetic children may prevent osteoporosis in later life.

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          Most cited references 7

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          A 2-year follow-up study on bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in patients with long-standing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

          The aim of study was to evaluate, during 2-year follow-up, bone mineral density in sites with different cortical/cancellous bone ratios (lumbar spine, total body, distal site of radius) and selected markers of bone turnover (total alkaline phoshatase, osteocalcin, pyridinoline and deoxypirydinoline) in patients with long-standing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in comparison with healthy controls. Additionally, the influence of age, sex, smoking, duration of diabetes, the degree of metabolic control, or coexisting chronic complications of diabetes (retinopathy, incipient nephropathy, polyneuropathy) on the studied indices of bone metabolism in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were evaluated. It was found that patients with long-standing diabetes mellitus had significantly lower bone mineral density than healthy controls (p < 0.003 in lumbar spine and p < 0.001 in total body). The incidence rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was significantly higher in this group of patients in comparison with the controls (p < 0.005 for lumbar spine and total body and p < 0.001 for radius). In comparison with healthy subjects, diabetic patients and significantly higher, but within normal reference range, serum alkaline phosphate (p < 0.005) and osteocalcin (p < 0.05), accompanied by similar pyridinoline and not significantly increased deoxypyridinoline. Duration and metabolic control of diabetes, or the coexistence of its chronic complications, did not correlate with bone mineral density or the studied indices of bone turnover. In conclusion, diabetic osteopenia seems to be a normal bone turnover state, not influenced by the duration or degree of metabolic control of diabetes.
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            Molecular basis and clinical application of biological markers of bone turnover

             M S Calvo (1996)
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              Influence of age, sex, and insulin on osteoblast function: osteoblast dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

               R. Bouillon (1995)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2002
                2002
                29 November 2002
                : 58
                : 6
                : 266-272
                Affiliations
                aFaculty of Motoric Science, Parthenope University, and bRheumatology Unit and cDepartment of Pediatrics, University Federico II, Naples, Italy
                Article
                66441 Horm Res 2002;58:266–272
                10.1159/000066441
                12446989
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 34, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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