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      Modelling dynamic route choice of pedestrians to assess the criticality of building evacuation

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          Abstract

          This paper presents an event-driven way finding algorithm for pedestrians in an evacuation scenario, which operates on a graph-based structure. The motivation of each pedestrian is to leave the facility. The events used to redirect pedestrians include the identification of a jam situation and/or identification of a better route than the current. This study considers two types of pedestrians: familiar and unfamiliar with the facility. Four strategies are modelled to cover those groups. The modelled strategies are the shortest path (local and global); They are combined with a quickest path approach, which is based on an observation principle. In the quickest path approach, pedestrians take their decisions based on the observed environment and are routed dynamically in the network using an appropriate cost benefit analysis function. The dynamic modelling of route choice with different strategies and types of pedestrians considers the manifold of in uences which appears in the real system and raises questions about the criticality of an evacuation process. To address this question criteria are elaborated. The criteria we focus on in this contribution are the evacuation time, the individual times spent in jam, the jam size evolution and the overall jam size itself. The in uences of the different strategies on those evaluation criteria are investigated. The sensibility of the system to disturbances (e.g. broken escape route) is also analysed. Keywords: pedestrian dynamics, routing, quickest path, evacuation, jam, critical state

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          Most cited references 12

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          A note on two problems in connexion with graphs

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            Social Force Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

            It is suggested that the motion of pedestrians can be described as if they would be subject to `social forces'. These `forces' are not directly exerted by the pedestrians' personal environment, but they are a measure for the internal motivations of the individuals to perform certain actions (movements). The corresponding force concept is discussed in more detail and can be also applied to the description of other behaviors. In the presented model of pedestrian behavior several force terms are essential: First, a term describing the acceleration towards the desired velocity of motion. Second, terms reflecting that a pedestrian keeps a certain distance to other pedestrians and borders. Third, a term modeling attractive effects. The resulting equations of motion are nonlinearly coupled Langevin equations. Computer simulations of crowds of interacting pedestrians show that the social force model is capable of describing the self-organization of several observed collective effects of pedestrian behavior very realistically.
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              Simulation of evacuation processes using a bionics-inspired cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics

              We present simulations of evacuation processes using a recently introduced cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics. This model applies a bionics approach to describe the interaction between the pedestrians using ideas from chemotaxis. Here we study a rather simple situation, namely the evacuation from a large room with one or two doors. It is shown that the variation of the model parameters allows to describe different types of behaviour, from regular to panic. We find a non-monotonic dependence of the evacuation times on the coupling constants. These times depend on the strength of the herding behaviour, with minimal evacuation times for some intermediate values of the couplings, i.e. a proper combination of herding and use of knowledge about the shortest way to the exit.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                21 March 2011
                Article
                1103.4080

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

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                15 pages, 34 figures
                cs.OH

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