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      Quantification of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody by a pseudotyped virus-based assay

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          Most cited references 15

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          EphrinB2 is the entry receptor for Nipah virus, an emergent deadly paramyxovirus.

          Nipah virus (NiV) is an emergent paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in up to 70 percent of infected patients, and there is evidence of human-to-human transmission. Endothelial syncytia, comprised of multinucleated giant-endothelial cells, are frequently found in NiV infections, and are mediated by the fusion (F) and attachment (G) envelope glycoproteins. Identification of the receptor for this virus will shed light on the pathobiology of NiV infection, and spur the rational development of effective therapeutics. Here we report that ephrinB2, the membrane-bound ligand for the EphB class of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), specifically binds to the attachment (G) glycoprotein of NiV. Soluble Fc-fusion proteins of ephrinB2, but not ephrinB1, effectively block NiV fusion and entry into permissive cell types. Moreover, transfection of ephrinB2 into non-permissive cells renders them permissive for NiV fusion and entry. EphrinB2 is expressed on endothelial cells and neurons, which is consistent with the known cellular tropism for NiV. Significantly, we find that NiV-envelope-mediated infection of microvascular endothelial cells and primary cortical rat neurons is inhibited by soluble ephrinB2, but not by the related ephrinB1 protein. Cumulatively, our data show that ephrinB2 is a functional receptor for NiV.
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            MERS-CoV spike protein: a key target for antivirals.

            The continual Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) threat highlights the importance of developing effective antiviral therapeutics to prevent and treat MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. A surface spike (S) protein guides MERS-CoV entry into host cells by binding to cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), followed by fusion between virus and host cell membranes. MERS-CoV S protein represents a key target for developing therapeutics to block viral entry and inhibit membrane fusion. Areas covered: This review illustrates MERS-CoV S protein's structure and function, particularly S1 receptor-binding domain (RBD) and S2 heptad repeat 1 (HR1) as therapeutic targets, and summarizes current advancement on developing anti-MERS-CoV therapeutics, focusing on neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antiviral peptides. Expert opinion: No anti-MERS-CoV therapeutic is approved for human use. Several S-targeting neutralizing mAbs and peptides have demonstrated efficacy against MERS-CoV infection, providing feasibility for development. Generally, human neutralizing mAbs targeting RBD are more potent than those targeting other regions of S protein. However, emergence of escape mutant viruses and mAb's limitations make it necessary for combining neutralizing mAbs recognizing different neutralizing epitopes and engineering them with improved efficacy and reduced cost. Optimization of the peptide sequences is expected to produce next-generation anti-MERS-CoV peptides with improved potency.
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              Vesicular stomatitis virus: re-inventing the bullet.

              As our understanding of the molecular aspects of human disease increases, it is becoming possible to create designer therapeutics that are exquisitely targeted and have greater efficacy and fewer side effects. One class of targeted biological agents that has benefited from recent advances in molecular biology is designer viruses. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is normally relatively innocuous but can be engineered to target cancer cells or to stimulate immunity against diseases such as AIDS or influenza. Strains of VSV that induce or direct the production of interferon are superior to wild-type strains of the virus for inducing oncolysis. These strains might also make better vaccine vectors. In this review, some of the features that make VSV an excellent platform for the development of a range of viral therapeutics are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Nature Protocols
                Nat Protoc
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1754-2189
                1750-2799
                September 25 2020
                Article
                10.1038/s41596-020-0394-5
                © 2020

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