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      The Human DnaJ Homologue dj2 Facilitates Mitochondrial Protein Import and Luciferase Refolding

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          DnaJ homologues function in cooperation with hsp70 family members in various cellular processes including intracellular protein trafficking and folding. Three human DnaJ homologues present in the cytosol have been identified: dj1 (hsp40/hdj-1), dj2 (HSDJ/hdj-2), and neuronal tissue-specific hsj1. dj1 is thought to be engaged in folding of nascent polypeptides, whereas functions of the other DnaJ homologues remain to be elucidated. To investigate roles of dj2 and dj1, we developed a system of chaperone depletion from and readdition to rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Using this system, we found that heat shock cognate 70 protein (hsc70) and dj2, but not dj1, are involved in mitochondrial import of preornithine transcarbamylase. Bacterial DnaJ could replace mammalian dj2 in mitochondrial protein import. We also tested the effects of these DnaJ homologues on folding of guanidine-denatured firefly luciferase. Unexpectedly, dj2, but not dj1, together with hsc70 refolded the protein efficiently. We propose that dj2 is the functional partner DnaJ homologue of hsc70 in the mammalian cytosol. Bacterial DnaJ protein could replace mammalian dj2 in the refolding of luciferase. Thus, the cytosolic chaperone system for mitochondrial protein import and for protein folding is highly conserved, involving DnaK and DnaJ in bacteria, Ssa1–4p and Ydj1p in yeast, and hsc70 and dj2 in mammals.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Molecular chaperones in cellular protein folding.

          The folding of many newly synthesized proteins in the cell depends on a set of conserved proteins known as molecular chaperones. These prevent the formation of misfolded protein structures, both under normal conditions and when cells are exposed to stresses such as high temperature. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of the ATP-dependent mechanisms used by the Hsp70 and chaperonin families of molecular chaperones, which can cooperate to assist in folding new polypeptide chains.
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            Common principles of protein translocation across membranes.

            Most major systems that transport proteins across a membrane share the following features: an amino-terminal transient signal sequence on the transported protein, a targeting system on the cis side of the membrane, a hetero-oligomeric transmembrane channel that is gated both across and within the plane of the membrane, a peripherally attached protein translocation motor that is powered by the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphate, and a protein folding system on the trans side of the membrane. These transport systems are divided into two families: export systems that export proteins out of the cytosol, and import systems that transport proteins into cytosol-like compartments.
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              Folding of nascent polypeptide chains in a high molecular mass assembly with molecular chaperones.

              The folding of polypeptides emerging from ribosomes was analysed in a mammalian translation system using firefly luciferase as a model protein. The growing polypeptide interacts with a specific set of molecular chaperones, including Hsp70, the DnaJ homologue Hsp40 and the chaperonin TRiC. The ordered assembly of these components on the nascent chain forms a high molecular mass complex that allows the cotranslational formation of protein domains and the completion of folding once the chain is released from the ribosome.

                Author and article information

                [*]Department of Molecular Genetics, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto 862, Japan; and []Institut für Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany
                J Cell Biol
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                1 December 1997
                : 139
                : 5
                : 1089-1095

                Cell biology


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