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      Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) chabaudi and Phlebotomus riouxi: closely related species or synonyms? Translated title: Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) chabaudi et Phlebotomus riouxi : espèces proches ou synonymes ?

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          Phlebotomus riouxi Depaquit, Killick-Kendrick & Léger 1998 was described as a species closely related to Phlebotomus chabaudi Croset, Abonnenc & Rioux 1970, differing mainly by the size and number of setae of the coxite basal lobe. Molecular studies carried out on several populations from Algeria and Tunisia and based on mitochondrial genes cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) supported the typological validity of these two species. Recently, specimens from a single population in southern Tunisia were morphologically identified as Ph. riouxi, Ph. chabaudi and intermediates, but were clustered in the same clade according to their Cytb and nuclear gene elongation factor-1 α (EF-1α) sequences. These species were thus synonymized. To further explore this synonymy, we carried out a molecular study on specimens from Algeria and Tunisia using the same molecular markers and a part of 28S rDNA. We did not find any morphologically intermediate specimens in our sampling. We highlighted differences between the genetic divergence rates within and between the two species for the three markers and we identified new haplotypes. The sequence analysis did not reveal any signature of introgression in allopatric nor in sympatric populations such as in the Ghomrassen population. Phylogenetic analyses based on our specimens revealed that the two main clades are Ph. chabaudi and Ph. riouxi, in agreement with the morphological identification. These results support the validity of Ph. riouxi and Ph. chabaudi as typological species.

          Translated abstract

          Phlebotomus riouxi Depaquit, Killick-Kendrick & Léger 1998 a été décrit comme une espèce proche de Phlebotomus chabaudi Croset, Abonnenc & Rioux 1970, se distinguant principalement par la taille et le nombre de soies sur le lobe basal du coxite. Des études moléculaires, menées sur plusieurs populations d'Algérie et de Tunisie, et basées sur les gènes mitochondriaux cytochrome b (Cytb) et cytochrome oxydase I (COI), ont soutenu la validité typologique de ces deux espèces. Récemment, des spécimens d'une seule population du sud de la Tunisie ont été morphologiquement identifiés comme des Ph. riouxi, Ph. chabaudi et intermédiaires, mais se sont retrouvés groupés dans le même clade selon leurs séquences de Cytb et de facteur d'élongation 1 alpha (EF-1α). Ces espèces ont donc été mises en synonymie. Afin d'explorer davantage cette synonymie, nous avons mené une étude moléculaire sur des spécimens d'Algérie et de Tunisie en utilisant les mêmes marqueurs moléculaires ainsi qu'une partie du 28S de l'ADN ribosomique. Aucun spécimen ne présentait de morphologie intermédiaire dans notre échantillonnage. Des différences entre les taux de variabilité génétique intra et interspécifiques des trois marqueurs ont été mises en évidence, ainsi que de nouveaux haplotypes. L'analyse des séquences n'a révélé aucune signature d'introgression que ce soit dans les populations allopatriques ou sympatriques telle que la population de Ghomrassen. Les analyses phylogénétiques basées sur nos échantillons ont révélé que les deux principaux clades correspondent à Ph. chabaudi et Ph. riouxi, résultat en accord avec l'identification morphologique. Ces résultats soutiennent la validité de Ph. riouxi et Ph. chabaudi comme espèces typologiques.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Dating of the human-ape splitting by a molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA.

          A new statistical method for estimating divergence dates of species from DNA sequence data by a molecular clock approach is developed. This method takes into account effectively the information contained in a set of DNA sequence data. The molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was calibrated by setting the date of divergence between primates and ungulates at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (65 million years ago), when the extinction of dinosaurs occurred. A generalized least-squares method was applied in fitting a model to mtDNA sequence data, and the clock gave dates of 92.3 +/- 11.7, 13.3 +/- 1.5, 10.9 +/- 1.2, 3.7 +/- 0.6, and 2.7 +/- 0.6 million years ago (where the second of each pair of numbers is the standard deviation) for the separation of mouse, gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee, respectively, from the line leading to humans. Although there is some uncertainty in the clock, this dating may pose a problem for the widely believed hypothesis that the pipedal creature Australopithecus afarensis, which lived some 3.7 million years ago at Laetoli in Tanzania and at Hadar in Ethiopia, was ancestral to man and evolved after the human-ape splitting. Another likelier possibility is that mtDNA was transferred through hybridization between a proto-human and a proto-chimpanzee after the former had developed bipedalism.
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            Molecular drive: a cohesive mode of species evolution.

             Lynn Dover (1982)
            It is generally accepted that mutations may become fixed in a population by natural selection and genetic drift. In the case of many families of genes and noncoding sequences, however, fixation of mutations within a population may proceed as a consequence of molecular mechanisms of turnover within the genome. These mechanisms can be both random and directional in activity. There are circumstances in which the unusual concerted pattern of fixation permits the establishment of biological novelty and species discontinuities in a manner not predicted by the classical genetics of natural selection and genetic drift.
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              Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review

              In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30–40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                1 December 2017
                : 24
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2017/01 )
                [1 ] EA 4688 - USC ANSES VECPAR, SFR Cap Santé, UFR de Pharmacie, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51 rue Cognacq-Jay, 51096 Reims France
                [2 ] UMR MIVEGEC, IRD - CNRS - Université de Montpellier, 911 avenue Agropolis, 34394 Montpellier France
                [3 ] Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montpellier, 2 rue de l'École de Médecine, 34000 Montpellier France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: jerome.depaquit@ 123456univ-reims.fr

                in memoriam

                parasite170066 10.1051/parasite/2017050
                © V. Lehrter et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 15
                Special Issue - ISOPS 9 - International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sandflies
                Research Article


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